Next Article in Journal
A Review of the Tribe Cryptoplini (Coleoptera: Curculioninae), with Revision of the Genus Menechirus Hartmann, 1901 and Description of a New Genus Associated with Macadamia
Next Article in Special Issue
Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast and Mitochondria Genomes from the Antarctic Polytrichaceae Species Polytrichum juniperinum and Polytrichum strictum
Previous Article in Journal
You Better Repeat It: Complex CO2 × Temperature Effects in Atlantic Silverside Offspring Revealed by Serial Experimentation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Trends in Population Size of Rare Plant Species in the Alpine Habitats of the Ukrainian Carpathians under Climate Change
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030070

Long-Term Changes in the Composition, Ecology, and Structure of Pinus mugo Scrubs in the Apennines (Italy)

1
Envix-Lab, Dipartimento di Bioscienze e Territorio, Università degli Studi del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, 86090 Pesche, Italy
2
Centro ArIA, Università degli Studi del Molise Via F. De Sanctis, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts on Alpine and Polar Plants)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1368 KB, uploaded 24 July 2018]   |  

Abstract

Mountain ecosystems are vulnerable because of land-use and climate change. In this study, we performed a re-visitation study using historical and newly collected vegetation plots to explore the primary trends in the floristic, ecological, and structural features of Mediterranean Pinus mugo krummholz over past decades. The plant community composition over time (1992 vs. 2016–17) was analyzed by a detrended correspondence analysis followed by a statistical comparison of time steps and an analysis of the contribution of each species to temporal differences. Ecological and structural changes were analyzed by a permutational multivariate analysis of variance followed by a post hoc comparison. We observed relevant changes in the floristic composition, structure, and ecological characteristics of Pinus mugo scrub. Some subalpine and treeline species that characterize the early stages of Pinus mugo succession declined as several warm-adapted species increased. Furthermore, these changes were most likely due to the natural evolution of high-mountain krummholz combined with a thermophilization process occurring in alpine habitats. In contrast, a small group of cold-adapted species also increased, probably because the patchy spatial pattern of Pinus mugo scrubs gives rise to “mesic patches” in a matrix of arid grasslands. The re-visitation approach adopted for long-term analysis in this study can potentially be applied to other mountainous regions to better understand long-term ecological changes in high alpine vegetation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ellenberg indicator values; global change; life forms; long-term analysis; Mediterranean mountains; re-visitation study Ellenberg indicator values; global change; life forms; long-term analysis; Mediterranean mountains; re-visitation study
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Calabrese, V.; Carranza, M.L.; Evangelista, A.; Marchetti, M.; Stinca, A.; Stanisci, A. Long-Term Changes in the Composition, Ecology, and Structure of Pinus mugo Scrubs in the Apennines (Italy). Diversity 2018, 10, 70.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Diversity EISSN 1424-2818 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top