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Diversity 2018, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10010003

Bee Diversity and Solanum didymum (Solanaceae) Flower–Visitor Network in an Atlantic Forest Fragment in Southern Brazil

1
Programa de Pós Graduação em Biologia Evolutiva da Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Rua Simeão Camargo Varela de Sá 03, Vila Carli, Guarapuava 85040-080, Brazil
2
Research Centre of Vascular Plants, Palinology Research Centre, Botanical Institute of Sao Paulo Government, Av. Miguel Stéfano, 3687 Água Funda, São Paulo 04045-972, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Celebrating the tenth Founding Year of Diversity)
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Abstract

Brazil’s Atlantic Forest biome is currently undergoing forest loss due to repeated episodes of devastation. In this biome, bees perform the most frequent pollination system. Over the last decade, network analysis has been extensively applied to the study of plant–pollinator interactions, as it provides a consistent view of the structure of plant–pollinator interactions. The aim of this study was to use palynological studies to obtain an understanding of the relationship between floral visitor bees and the pioneer plant S. didymum in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest, and also learn about the other plants that interact to form this network. Five hundred bees were collected from 32 species distributed into five families: Andrenidae, Apidae, Colletidae, Megachilidae, and Halictidae. The interaction network consisted of 21 bee species and 35 pollen types. The Solanum-type bee species with the highest number of interactions were Anthrenoides sp. 1, Augochlora sp. 2, and Augochloropsis notophos, representing 71.78% of their interactions. Augochloropsis notophos and Augochlora sp. 2 were the only common species in the flowers of S. didymum. Given the results of our study, we conclude that Solanum is an important source of pollen grains for several native bee species, mainly for the solitary species that are more diverse in the south of Brazil. Moreover, our results indicate that bees from the families Halictidae (A. notophos, Augochlora) and Andrenidae (Anthrenoides) are the pollinators of S. didymum. View Full-Text
Keywords: floral visitors; food web; mutualistic relationship; palynological data; vibratile floral visitors; food web; mutualistic relationship; palynological data; vibratile
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Lando, F.; Lustosa, P.R.; P. da Luz, C.F.; Buschini, M.L.T. Bee Diversity and Solanum didymum (Solanaceae) Flower–Visitor Network in an Atlantic Forest Fragment in Southern Brazil. Diversity 2018, 10, 3.

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