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Diversity 2018, 10(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10010011

Kelps’ Long-Distance Dispersal: Role of Ecological/Oceanographic Processes and Implications to Marine Forest Conservation

1
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brazil
2
Instituto Oceanográfico, Departamento de Oceanografia Biológica, Praça do Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo, 112 Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508120, Brazil
3
Instituto Oceanográfico, Departamento de Oceanografia Física, Química e Geológica, Praça do Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo, 172 Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508120, Brazil
4
Centro Universitario Regional del Este (CURE), Universidad de la República, Intersección Ruta 9 y Ruta 15, Rocha 27000, Uruguay
5
Laboratório de Ficologia, Departamento de Botânica, 24 Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; CEP, Florianópolis, SC 88040-970, Brazil
6
Dirección Nacional de Recursos Acuáticos (DINARA), Montevideo 11200, Uruguay
7
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Private Bag X2 Rogge Bay 8012, South Africa9. Biological Sciences Department and Marine Research Institute, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7701, South Africa
8
Coral Reef Watch, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, College Park, MD 20740, USA
9
Global Science and Technology, Inc., Greenbelt, MD 20770, USA
10
Laboratorio de Macroalgas Antárticas y Subantárticas, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas 01855, Chile
11
CCMAR—Centre of Marine Sciences, CIMAR, University of Algarve, Campus of Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algal Phylogeographic Patterns: Causes and Consequences)
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Abstract

Long-distance dispersal is one of the main drivers structuring the distribution of marine biodiversity. This study reports the first occurrence of Macrocystis pyrifera and Durvillaea antarctica rafts on the southwestern warm temperate coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Our results indicate that an extreme meteo-oceanographic event, characterized by a northward, displacement of cold sub-Antarctic oceanic waters driven by an extratropical cyclone, could account for these unusual occurrences. A niche model based on known current distribution and maximum entropy principle (MAXENT), revealed the availability of suitable habitats at lower latitudes, outside their actual distribution edges. The distributional boundaries, mainly driven by temperature and irradiance, suggest the existence of environmental suitability in warm temperate areas, as well as in the Northern Hemisphere off Atlantic and Asian coasts. These theoretical edges and respective environmental drivers agree with the physiological affinities of both species, supporting the hypothesis that these variables act as limiting factors for their occurrences in tropical or warmer areas. Emerging regions can function as refuges and stepping-stones, providing substrate with adequate habitat conditions for recruitment of propagules, allowing eventual colonization. Long dispersal events reinforce the need for an extensive discussion on selective management of natural dispersion, biological invasions, refuge mapping and conservation initiatives in a transnational perspective. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kelp rafts; marine migration; niche model; biogeography; upwelling; extratropical cyclone Kelp rafts; marine migration; niche model; biogeography; upwelling; extratropical cyclone
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bernardes Batista, M.; Batista Anderson, A.; Franzan Sanches, P.; Simionatto Polito, P.; Lima Silveira, T.C.; Velez-Rubio, G.M.; Scarabino, F.; Camacho, O.; Schmitz, C.; Martinez, A.; Ortega, L.; Fabiano, G.; Rothman, M.D.; Liu, G.; Ojeda, J.; Mansilla, A.; Barreto, L.M.; Assis, J.; Serrão, E.A.; Santos, R.; Antunes Horta, P. Kelps’ Long-Distance Dispersal: Role of Ecological/Oceanographic Processes and Implications to Marine Forest Conservation. Diversity 2018, 10, 11.

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