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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2717; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092717

Impact of X-ray Exposure on the Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Pre-Adipocytes

1
GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
2
Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Ulm, 89075 Ulm, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Challenges in Biomolecular Radiation Research)
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Abstract

Radiotherapy is a widely used treatment option for cancer patients as well as for patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Adipocytes, the dominant cell type of adipose tissue, are known to constitute an active part of the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, adipocytes support inflammatory processes and cartilage degradation in chronic inflammatory diseases, i.e., rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. Since the production of inflammatory factors is linked to their differentiation stages, we set out to explore the radiation response of pre-adipocytes that may influence their inflammatory potential and differentiation capacity. This is the first study investigating the effects of X-ray irradiation on the proliferation and differentiation capacity of human primary pre-adipocytes, in comparison to Simpson–Golabi–Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) pre-adipocytes, an often-used in vitro model of human primary pre-adipocytes. Our results demonstrate a dose-dependent reduction of the proliferation capacity for both cell strains, whereas the potential for differentiation was mostly unaffected by irradiation. The expression of markers of adipogenic development, such as transcription factors (PPARγ, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ), as well as the release of adipokines (visfatin, adiponectin and leptin) were not significantly changed upon irradiation. However, after irradiation with high X-ray doses, an increased lipid accumulation was observed, which suggests a radiation-induced response of adipocytes related to inflammation. Our results indicate that pre-adipocytes are radio-resistant, and it remains to be elucidated whether this holds true for the overall inflammatory response of adipocytes upon irradiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipocytes; adipokines; adipogenic differentiation; SGBS; radiotherapy; low dose radiation therapy; radiation response; photon irradiation adipocytes; adipokines; adipogenic differentiation; SGBS; radiotherapy; low dose radiation therapy; radiation response; photon irradiation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shreder, K.; Rapp, F.; Tsoukala, I.; Rzeznik, V.; Wabitsch, M.; Fischer-Posovszky, P.; Fournier, C. Impact of X-ray Exposure on the Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Pre-Adipocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2717.

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