Next Article in Journal
Autologous Mesenchymal Stroma Cells Are Superior to Allogeneic Ones in Bone Defect Regeneration
Previous Article in Journal
Cardiovascular Benefits of Exercise Training in Postmenopausal Hypertension
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092525

Opposite Polarity Monospore Genome De Novo Sequencing and Comparative Analysis Reveal the Possible Heterothallic Life Cycle of Morchella importuna

1
Institute of Applied Mycology, Plant Science and Technology College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
Key Laboratory of Agro-Microbial Resource Comprehensive Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biophysics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1941 KB, uploaded 25 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

Morchella is a popular edible fungus worldwide due to its rich nutrition and unique flavor. Many research efforts were made on the domestication and cultivation of Morchella all over the world. In recent years, the cultivation of Morchella was successfully commercialized in China. However, the biology is not well understood, which restricts the further development of the morel fungus cultivation industry. In this paper, we performed de novo sequencing and assembly of the genomes of two monospores with a different mating type (M04M24 and M04M26) isolated from the commercially cultivated strain M04. Gene annotation and comparative genome analysis were performed to study differences in CAZyme (Carbohydrate-active enzyme) enzyme content, transcription factors, duplicated sequences, structure of mating type sites, and differences at the gene and functional levels between the two monospore strains of M. importuna. Results showed that the de novo assembled haploid M04M24 and M04M26 genomes were 48.98 and 51.07 Mb, respectively. A complete fine physical map of M. importuna was obtained from genome coverage and gene completeness evaluation. A total of 10,852 and 10,902 common genes and 667 and 868 endemic genes were identified from the two monospore strains, respectively. The Gene Ontology (GO) and KAAS (KEGG Automatic Annotation Serve) enrichment analyses showed that the endemic genes performed different functions. The two monospore strains had 99.22% collinearity with each other, accompanied with certain position and rearrangement events. Analysis of complete mating-type loci revealed that the two monospore M. importuna strains contained an independent mating-type structure and remained conserved in sequence and location. The phylogenetic and divergence time of M. importuna was analyzed at the whole-genome level for the first time. The bifurcation time of morel and tuber was estimated to be 201.14 million years ago (Mya); the two monospore strains with a different mating type represented the evolution of different nuclei, and the single copy homologous genes between them were also different due to a genetic differentiation distance about 0.65 Mya. Compared with truffles, M. importuna had an extension of 28 clusters of orthologous genes (COGs) and a contraction of two COGs. The two different polar nuclei with different degrees of contraction and expansion suggested that they might have undergone different evolutionary processes. The different mating-type structures, together with the functional clustering and enrichment analysis results of the endemic genes of the two different polar nuclei, imply that M. importuna might be a heterothallic fungus and the interaction between the endemic genes may be necessary for its complete life history. Studies on the genome of M. importuna facilitate a better understanding of morel biology and evolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: Morchella importuna; mating type; transcriptome; heterothallism; gene expansion and contraction Morchella importuna; mating type; transcriptome; heterothallism; gene expansion and contraction
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, W.; Chen, L.; Cai, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Bian, Y. Opposite Polarity Monospore Genome De Novo Sequencing and Comparative Analysis Reveal the Possible Heterothallic Life Cycle of Morchella importuna. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2525.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top