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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082327

Developing Hollow-Channel Gold Nanoflowers as Trimodal Intracellular Nanoprobes

1
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
2
Leeds Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS9 7TF, UK
3
School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
4
Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS9 7TF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

Gold nanoparticles-enabled intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) provides a sensitive and promising technique for single cell analysis. Compared with spherical gold nanoparticles, gold nanoflowers, i.e., flower-shaped gold nanostructures, can produce a stronger SERS signal. Current exploration of gold nanoflowers for intracellular SERS has been considerably limited by the difficulties in preparation, as well as background signal and cytotoxicity arising from the surfactant capping layer. Recently, we have developed a facile and surfactant-free method for fabricating hollow-channel gold nanoflowers (HAuNFs) with great single-particle SERS activity. In this paper, we investigate the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of our HAuNFs using a RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line, and have observed effective cellular internalization and low cytotoxicity. We have further engineered our HAuNFs into SERS-active tags, and demonstrated the functionality of the obtained tags as trimodal nanoprobes for dark-field and fluorescence microscopy imaging, together with intracellular SERS. View Full-Text
Keywords: gold nanoflowers; intracellular nanoprobes; surface plasmon resonance; SERS; fluorescence; dark-field gold nanoflowers; intracellular nanoprobes; surface plasmon resonance; SERS; fluorescence; dark-field
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Ye, S.; Wheeler, M.C.; McLaughlan, J.R.; Tamang, A.; Diggle, C.P.; Cespedes, O.; Markham, A.F.; Coletta, P.L.; Evans, S.D. Developing Hollow-Channel Gold Nanoflowers as Trimodal Intracellular Nanoprobes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2327.

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