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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072035

Role of Damage Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules (DAMPs) in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (aSAH)

1
Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Bonn, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud Str. 25, D-53105 Bonn, Germany
2
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 266, FI-00029 Helsinki, Finland
3
Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmacy, University of Bonn, Gerhard-Domagk-Strasse 3, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Interleukins in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) represents only a small portion of all strokes, but accounts for almost half of the deaths caused by stroke worldwide. Neurosurgical clipping and endovascular coiling can successfully obliterate the bleeding aneurysms, but ensuing complications such as cerebral vasospasm, acute and chronic hydrocephalus, seizures, cortical spreading depression, delayed ischemic neurological deficits, and delayed cerebral ischemia lead to poor clinical outcomes. The mechanisms leading to these complications are complex and poorly understood. Early brain injury resulting from transient global ischemia can release molecules that may be critical to initiate and sustain inflammatory response. Hence, the events during early brain injury can influence the occurrence of delayed brain injury. Since the damage associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) might be the initiators of inflammation in the pathophysiology of aSAH, so the aim of this review is to highlight their role in the context of aSAH from diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic, and drug therapy monitoring perspectives. DAMPs represent a diverse and a heterogenous group of molecules derived from different compartments of cells upon injury. Here, we have reviewed the most important DAMPs molecules including high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), S100B, hemoglobin and its derivatives, extracellular matrix components, IL-1α, IL-33, and mitochondrial DNA in the context of aSAH and their role in post-aSAH complications and clinical outcome after aSAH. View Full-Text
Keywords: subarachnoid hemorrhage; danger associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs); alarmins; high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1); S100B; mitochondrial DNA; hemoglobin; interleukin (IL)-33; IL-1α; heat shock proteins subarachnoid hemorrhage; danger associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs); alarmins; high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1); S100B; mitochondrial DNA; hemoglobin; interleukin (IL)-33; IL-1α; heat shock proteins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Chaudhry, S.R.; Hafez, A.; Rezai Jahromi, B.; Kinfe, T.M.; Lamprecht, A.; Niemelä, M.; Muhammad, S. Role of Damage Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules (DAMPs) in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (aSAH). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2035.

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