Next Article in Journal
Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Combined with Biological Validation Reveals Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Contributing to Trastuzumab Resistance in Gastric Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Gold Nanoparticles in Diagnostics and Therapeutics for Human Cancer
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1980; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071980

Glycine Relieves Intestinal Injury by Maintaining mTOR Signaling and Suppressing AMPK, TLR4, and NOD Signaling in Weaned Piglets after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge

1
Hubei Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China
2
Zhe Jiang Goshine Test Technologies Co., Ltd., Hangzhou 310030, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) 2018)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4694 KB, uploaded 6 July 2018]   |  

Abstract

This study was conducted to envaluate whether glycine could alleviate Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury by regulating intestinal epithelial energy status, protein synthesis, and inflammatory response via AMPK, mTOR, TLR4, and NOD signaling pathways. A total of 24 weanling piglets were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) non-challenged control; (2) LPS-challenged control; (3) LPS + 1% glycine; (4) LPS + 2% glycine. After 28 days feeding, piglets were injected intraperitoneally with saline or LPS. The pigs were slaughtered and intestinal samples were collected at 4 h postinjection. The mRNA expression of key genes in these signaling pathways was measured by real-time PCR. The protein abundance was measured by Western blot analysis. Supplementation with glycine increased jejunal villus height/crypt depth ratio. Glycine also increased the jejunal and ileal protein content, RNA/DNA ratio, and jejunal protein/DNA ratio. The activities of citroyl synthetase in ileum, and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in jejunum, were increased in the piglets fed diets supplemented with glycine. In addition, glycine decreased the jejunal and ileal phosphorylation of AMPKα, and increased ileal phosphorylation of mTOR. Furthermore, glycine downregulated the mRNA expression of key genes in inflammatory signaling. Meanwhile, glycine increased the mRNA expression of negative regulators of inflammatory signaling. These results indicate that glycine supplementation could improve energy status and protein synthesis by regulating AMPK and mTOR signaling pathways, and relieve inflammation by inhibiting of TLR4 and NOD signaling pathways to alleviate intestinal injury in LPS-challenged piglets. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycine; inflammatory response; intestine; LPS; weanling piglets glycine; inflammatory response; intestine; LPS; weanling piglets
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, X.; Wang, X.; Wu, H.; Zhu, H.; Liu, C.; Hou, Y.; Dai, B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. Glycine Relieves Intestinal Injury by Maintaining mTOR Signaling and Suppressing AMPK, TLR4, and NOD Signaling in Weaned Piglets after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1980.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top