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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061730

Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Enriched Cheeses Influence the Levels of Circulating n-3 Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Humans

1
Dipartimento Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy
2
Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, VetAgro Sup, UMR Herbivores, F-63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France
3
APC Microbiome Ireland, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, P61 C996 Co. Cork, Ireland
4
APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, T12 YT20 Cork, Ireland
5
Servizio per la Ricerca nei Prodotti di Origine Animale, AGRIS Sardegna, Loc. Bonassai, 07100 Sassari, Italy
6
Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Roma, Italy
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Current address: Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, 1449614535 Teheran, Iran.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease: New Knowledge)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1230 KB, uploaded 11 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) directly and indirectly regulate lipid metabolism, energy balance and the inflammatory response. We investigated changes to the n-3 HUFA score of healthy adults, induced by different types and amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched (ENCH) cheeses consumed for different periods of time, compared to dietary fish oil (FO) pills (500 mg, each containing 100 mg of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids—EPA+DHA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA)-rich linseed oil (4 g, containing 2 g of ALA). A significant increase in the n-3 HUFA score was observed, in a dose-dependent manner, after administration of the FO supplement. In terms of the impact on the n-3 HUFA score, the intake of ENCH cheese (90 g/day) for two or four weeks was equivalent to the administration of one or two FO pills, respectively. Conversely, the linseed oil intake did not significantly impact the n-3 HUFA score. Feeding ENCH cheeses from different sources (bovine, ovine and caprine) for two months improved the n-3 HUFA score by increasing plasma DHA, and the effect was proportional to the CLA content in the cheese. We suggest that the improved n-3 HUFA score resulting from ENCH cheese intake may be attributed to increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) activity. This study demonstrates that natural ENCH cheese is an alternative nutritional source of n-3 HUFA in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: conjugated linoleic acids (CLA); cheese; ruminant; highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA); fatty acids (FA); plasma; clinical trial conjugated linoleic acids (CLA); cheese; ruminant; highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA); fatty acids (FA); plasma; clinical trial
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Murru, E.; Carta, G.; Cordeddu, L.; Melis, M.P.; Desogus, E.; Ansar, H.; Chilliard, Y.; Ferlay, A.; Stanton, C.; Coakley, M.; Ross, R.P.; Piredda, G.; Addis, M.; Mele, M.C.; Cannelli, G.; Banni, S.; Manca, C. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Enriched Cheeses Influence the Levels of Circulating n-3 Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Humans. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1730.

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