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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051456

Epigenetics of Subcellular Structure Functioning in the Origin of Risk or Resilience to Comorbidity of Neuropsychiatric and Cardiometabolic Disorders

Department of Psychiatry, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Ciudad de México 14080, Mexico
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Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics of Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Abstract

Mechanisms controlling mitochondrial function, protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear processes such as telomere length and DNA repair may be subject to epigenetic cues that relate the genomic expression and environmental exposures in early stages of life. They may also be involved in the comorbid appearance of cardiometabolic (CMD) and neuropsychiatric disorders (NPD) during adulthood. Mitochondrial function and protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum are associated with oxidative stress and elevated intracellular calcium levels and may also underlie the vulnerability for comorbid CMD and NPD. Mitochondria provide key metabolites such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), ATP, α-ketoglutarate and acetyl coenzyme A that are required for many transcriptional and epigenetic processes. They are also a source of free radicals. On the other hand, epigenetic markers in nuclear DNA determine mitochondrial biogenesis. The ER is the subcellular organelle in which secretory proteins are folded. Many environmental factors stop the ability of cells to properly fold proteins and modify post-translationally secretory and transmembrane proteins leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress. ER functioning may be epigenetically determined. Chronic ER stress is emerging as a key contributor to a growing list of human diseases, including CMD and NPD. Telomere loss causes chromosomal fusion, activation of the control of DNA damage-responses, unstable genome and altered stem cell function, which may underlie the comorbidity of CMD and NPD. The length of telomeres is related to oxidative stress and may be epigenetically programmed. Pathways involved in DNA repair may be epigenetically programmed and may contribute to diseases. In this paper, we describe subcellular mechanisms that are determined by epigenetic markers and their possible relation to the development of increased susceptibility to develop CMD and NPD. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenetics; mitochondria; endoplasmic reticulum stress; telomere length; DNA repair; neuropsychiatric disorders; cardiometabolic disorders epigenetics; mitochondria; endoplasmic reticulum stress; telomere length; DNA repair; neuropsychiatric disorders; cardiometabolic disorders
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zapata-Martín del Campo, C.M.; Martínez-Rosas, M.; Guarner-Lans, V. Epigenetics of Subcellular Structure Functioning in the Origin of Risk or Resilience to Comorbidity of Neuropsychiatric and Cardiometabolic Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1456.

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