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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1148; doi:10.3390/ijms19041148

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage and Repair: Capitalizing on Our Understanding of the Mechanisms of Maintaining Genomic Integrity for Therapeutic Purposes

1
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
2
Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Department of Immunology, South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC) Extramural Unit for Stem Cell Research and Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Replication Stress)
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Abstract

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the self-replicating hereditary material that provides a blueprint which, in collaboration with environmental influences, produces a structural and functional phenotype. As DNA coordinates and directs differentiation, growth, survival, and reproduction, it is responsible for life and the continuation of our species. Genome integrity requires the maintenance of DNA stability for the correct preservation of genetic information. This is facilitated by accurate DNA replication and precise DNA repair. DNA damage may arise from a wide range of both endogenous and exogenous sources but may be repaired through highly specific mechanisms. The most common mechanisms include mismatch, base excision, nucleotide excision, and double-strand DNA (dsDNA) break repair. Concurrent with regulation of the cell cycle, these mechanisms are precisely executed to ensure full restoration of damaged DNA. Failure or inaccuracy in DNA repair contributes to genome instability and loss of genetic information which may lead to mutations resulting in disease or loss of life. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of DNA damage and its repair provides insight into disease pathogeneses and may facilitate diagnosis and the development of targeted therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA replication; DNA damage; DNA repair; genome integrity DNA replication; DNA damage; DNA repair; genome integrity
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Helena, J.M.; Joubert, A.M.; Grobbelaar, S.; Nolte, E.M.; Nel, M.; Pepper, M.S.; Coetzee, M.; Mercier, A.E. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage and Repair: Capitalizing on Our Understanding of the Mechanisms of Maintaining Genomic Integrity for Therapeutic Purposes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1148.

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