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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1109; doi:10.3390/ijms19041109

d-Amino Acids Are Exuded by Arabidopsis thaliana Roots to the Rhizosphere

Center for Plant Molecular Biology (ZMBP), University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 32, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
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Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino Acids Transport and Metabolism)
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Abstract

Proteinogenic l-amino acids (l-AAs) are essential in all kingdoms as building blocks of proteins. Their d-enantiomers are also known to fulfill important functions in microbes, fungi, and animals, but information about these molecules in plants is still sparse. Previously, it was shown that d-amino acids (d-AAs) are taken up and utilized by plants, but their ways to reduce excessive amounts of them still remained unclear. Analyses of plant d-AA content after d-Ala and d-Glu feeding opened the question if exudation of d-AAs into the rhizosphere takes place and plays a role in the reduction of d-AA content in plants. The exudation of d-Ala and d-Glu could be confirmed by amino acid analyses of growth media from plants treated with these d-AAs. Further tests revealed that other d-AAs were also secreted. Nevertheless, treatments with d-Ala and d-Glu showed that plants are still able to reduce their contents within the plant without exudation. Further exudation experiments with transport inhibitors revealed that d-AA root exudation is rather passive and comparable to the secretion of l-AAs. Altogether, these observations argued against a dominant role of exudation in the regulation of plant d-AA content, but may influence the composition of the rhizosphere. View Full-Text
Keywords: d-amino acids; chiral LC-MS; root exudation; plant-rhizosphere interactions; molecular transport d-amino acids; chiral LC-MS; root exudation; plant-rhizosphere interactions; molecular transport
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Hener, C.; Hummel, S.; Suarez, J.; Stahl, M.; Kolukisaoglu, Ü. d-Amino Acids Are Exuded by Arabidopsis thaliana Roots to the Rhizosphere. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1109.

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