d-Amino Acids Are Exuded by Arabidopsis thaliana Roots to the Rhizosphere
AbstractProteinogenic l-amino acids (l-AAs) are essential in all kingdoms as building blocks of proteins. Their d-enantiomers are also known to fulfill important functions in microbes, fungi, and animals, but information about these molecules in plants is still sparse. Previously, it was shown that d-amino acids (d-AAs) are taken up and utilized by plants, but their ways to reduce excessive amounts of them still remained unclear. Analyses of plant d-AA content after d-Ala and d-Glu feeding opened the question if exudation of d-AAs into the rhizosphere takes place and plays a role in the reduction of d-AA content in plants. The exudation of d-Ala and d-Glu could be confirmed by amino acid analyses of growth media from plants treated with these d-AAs. Further tests revealed that other d-AAs were also secreted. Nevertheless, treatments with d-Ala and d-Glu showed that plants are still able to reduce their contents within the plant without exudation. Further exudation experiments with transport inhibitors revealed that d-AA root exudation is rather passive and comparable to the secretion of l-AAs. Altogether, these observations argued against a dominant role of exudation in the regulation of plant d-AA content, but may influence the composition of the rhizosphere. View Full-Text
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Hener, C.; Hummel, S.; Suarez, J.; Stahl, M.; Kolukisaoglu, Ü. d-Amino Acids Are Exuded by Arabidopsis thaliana Roots to the Rhizosphere. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1109.
Hener C, Hummel S, Suarez J, Stahl M, Kolukisaoglu Ü. d-Amino Acids Are Exuded by Arabidopsis thaliana Roots to the Rhizosphere. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(4):1109.Chicago/Turabian Style
Hener, Claudia; Hummel, Sabine; Suarez, Juan; Stahl, Mark; Kolukisaoglu, Üner. 2018. "d-Amino Acids Are Exuded by Arabidopsis thaliana Roots to the Rhizosphere." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 4: 1109.
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