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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030805

Nanoparticle Exposure and Hormetic Dose–Responses: An Update

1
Department of Public Health, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
Institute of Public Health, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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Abstract

The concept of hormesis, as an adaptive response of biological systems to moderate environmental challenges, has raised considerable nano-toxicological interests in view of the rapid pace of production and application of even more innovative nanomaterials and the expected increasing likelihood of environmental and human exposure to low-dose concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an update of the current knowledge concerning the biphasic dose–responses induced by nanoparticle exposure. The evidence presented confirmed and extended our previous findings, showing that hormesis is a generalized adaptive response which may be further generalized to nanoscale xenobiotic challenges. Nanoparticle physico-chemical properties emerged as possible features affecting biphasic relationships, although the molecular mechanisms underlining such influences remain to be fully understood, especially in experimental settings resembling long-term and low-dose realistic environmental exposure scenarios. Further investigation is necessary to achieve helpful information for a suitable assessment of nanomaterial risks at the low-dose range for both the ecosystem function and the human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanomaterial; dose–response relationship; hormesis; low doses nanomaterial; dose–response relationship; hormesis; low doses
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Iavicoli, I.; Leso, V.; Fontana, L.; Calabrese, E.J. Nanoparticle Exposure and Hormetic Dose–Responses: An Update. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 805.

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