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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 721; doi:10.3390/ijms19030721

Pathogen-Derived Carbohydrate Recognition in Molluscs Immune Defense

Liaoning Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Immunology, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, China
Functional Laboratory of Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266235, China
Liaoning Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Immunology and Disease Control, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 3 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Recognition of Carbohydrates)
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Self-nonself discrimination is a common theme for all of the organisms in different evolutionary branches, which is also the most fundamental step for host immune protection. Plenty of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) with great diversity have been identified from different organisms to recognize various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in the last two decades, depicting a complicated scene of host-pathogen interaction. However, the detailed mechanism of the complicate PAMPs–PRRs interactions at the contacting interface between pathogens and hosts is still not well understood. All of the cells are coated by glycosylation complex and thick carbohydrates layer. The different polysaccharides in extracellular matrix of pathogen-host are important for nonself recognition of most organisms. Coincidentally, massive expansion of PRRs, majority of which contain recognition domains of Ig, leucine-rich repeat (LRR), C-type lectin (CTL), C1q and scavenger receptor (SR), have been annotated and identified in invertebrates by screening the available genomic sequence. The phylum Mollusca is one of the largest groups in the animal kingdom with abundant biodiversity providing plenty of solutions about pathogen recognition and immune protection, which might offer a suitable model to figure out the common rules of immune recognition mechanism. The present review summarizes the diverse PRRs and common elements of various PAMPs, especially focusing on the structural and functional characteristics of canonical carbohydrate recognition proteins and some novel proteins functioning in molluscan immune defense system, with the objective to provide new ideas about the immune recognition mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbohydrate complex; pattern recognition receptor; molluscs; immune recognition; innate immunity carbohydrate complex; pattern recognition receptor; molluscs; immune recognition; innate immunity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, W.; Song, X.; Wang, L.; Song, L. Pathogen-Derived Carbohydrate Recognition in Molluscs Immune Defense. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 721.

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