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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030704

Biochemical and Physiological Characteristics of Photosynthesis in Plants of Two Calathea Species

1
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
2
Department of Horticulture and Biotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 114, Taiwan
3
Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
4
Department of Life Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
5
Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, CPC Corporation, Minsheng S. Road, Chiayi 600, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photosynthesis)
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Abstract

Plants of the genus Calathea possess many leaf colors, and they are economically important because they are widely used as ornamentals for interior landscaping. Physiological performances and photosynthetic capacities of C. insignis and C. makoyana were investigated. The photosynthetic efficiencies of C. insignis and C. makoyana were significantly increased when the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) increased from 0 to 600 μmol photons·m−2·s−1 and became saturated with a further increase in the PPFD. The two Calathea species had lower values of both the light saturation point and maximal photosynthetic rate, which indicated that they are shade plants. No significant differences in predawn Fv/Fm values (close to 0.8) were observed between dark-green (DG) and light-green (LG) leaf sectors in all tested leaves. However, the effective quantum yield of photosystem II largely decreased as the PPFD increased. An increase in the apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate was observed in both species to a maximum at 600 μmol·m−2·s−1 PPFD, following by a decrease to 1500 μmol·m−2·s−1 PPFD. Compared to LG leaf extracts, DG leaf extracts contained higher levels of chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, Chls a + b, carotenoids (Cars), anthocyanins (Ants), flavonoids (Flas), and polyphenols (PPs) in all plants, except for the Ant, Fla and PP contents of C. insignis plants. Calathea insignis also contained significantly higher levels of total protein than did C. makoyana. The adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), red-green, and flavonol index (FlavI) were significantly correlated to leaf Chls a + b, Cars, Ants, and Flas in C. makoyana, respectively, and can be used as indicators to characterize the physiology of these plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence; leaf sector; ornamental plant; photosynthesis; secondary metabolite; spectral reflectance chlorophyll fluorescence; leaf sector; ornamental plant; photosynthesis; secondary metabolite; spectral reflectance
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Nguyen, H.C.; Lin, K.-H.; Hsiung, T.-C.; Huang, M.-Y.; Yang, C.-M.; Weng, J.-H.; Hsu, M.-H.; Chen, P.-Y.; Chang, K.-C. Biochemical and Physiological Characteristics of Photosynthesis in Plants of Two Calathea Species. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 704.

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