Next Article in Journal
Molecular Modeling Study for the Design of Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Agonists Using 3D-QSAR and Molecular Docking
Next Article in Special Issue
Arabidopsis RETICULON-LIKE3 (RTNLB3) and RTNLB8 Participate in Agrobacterium-Mediated Plant Transformation
Previous Article in Journal
Epigallocatechin Gallate Reduces Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Perfused Rabbit Hearts
Previous Article in Special Issue
Molecular Biology of Prune Dwarf Virus—A Lesser Known Member of the Bromoviridae but a Vital Component in the Dynamic Virus–Host Cell Interaction Network
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 629; doi:10.3390/ijms19020629

Indispensable Role of Proteases in Plant Innate Immunity

Institute of Molecular Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 8, Trubetskaya Str., Moscow 119991, Russia
Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2217 KB, uploaded 23 February 2018]   |  


Plant defense is achieved mainly through the induction of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI), effector-triggered immunity (ETI), systemic acquired resistance (SAR), induced systemic resistance (ISR), and RNA silencing. Plant immunity is a highly complex phenomenon with its own unique features that have emerged as a result of the arms race between plants and pathogens. However, the regulation of these processes is the same for all living organisms, including plants, and is controlled by proteases. Different families of plant proteases are involved in every type of immunity: some of the proteases that are covered in this review participate in MTI, affecting stomatal closure and callose deposition. A large number of proteases act in the apoplast, contributing to ETI by managing extracellular defense. A vast majority of the endogenous proteases discussed in this review are associated with the programmed cell death (PCD) of the infected cells and exhibit caspase-like activities. The synthesis of signal molecules, such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene, and their signaling pathways, are regulated by endogenous proteases that affect the induction of pathogenesis-related genes and SAR or ISR establishment. A number of proteases are associated with herbivore defense. In this review, we summarize the data concerning identified plant endogenous proteases, their effect on plant-pathogen interactions, their subcellular localization, and their functional properties, if available, and we attribute a role in the different types and stages of innate immunity for each of the proteases covered. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant proteases; plant immunity; MTI; ETI; SAR; ISR; RNA silencing plant proteases; plant immunity; MTI; ETI; SAR; ISR; RNA silencing

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Balakireva, A.V.; Zamyatnin, A.A., Jr. Indispensable Role of Proteases in Plant Innate Immunity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 629.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top