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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020598

The Cyanthin Diterpenoid and Sesterterpene Constituents of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Ameliorate Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Pathologies in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice

1
Institute of Biopharmaceutical Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
2
Department of Cosmetic Science, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
3
Biotechnology Center, Grape King Bio Ltd. Chung-Li, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan
4
Institute of Neuroscience, Brain Research Center, School of Life Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
5
National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei 112, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism)
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Abstract

Hericium erinaceus was used in traditional Chinese medicine for physiologically beneficial medicines. Recently, it has become a candidate in causing positive brain health-related activities. We previously reported that Hericium erinaceus mycelium ameliorates Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related pathologies. To reveal the role of the cyanthin diterpenoid and sesterterpene constituents on this effects, erinacine A and S were isolated and their effects on attenuating AD-related pathology in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were investigated. A 30 day short-term administration of erinacine A and S were performed to explore the effect of each erinacine on AD-related pathology including amyloid β production and degradation, plaque formation, plaque growth, glial activation and neurogenesis deterioration. Our results indicated the benefit effects of both erinacine A and S in cerebrum of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, including: (1) attenuating cerebral plaque loading by inhibiting plaque growth; (2) diminishing the activation of glial cells; (3) raising the level of insulin degrading enzyme; and (4) promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, erinacine A reduced the level of insoluble amyloid β and C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein which was not mediated by erinacine S. We further performed a long term administration of erinacine A and found that erinacine A recovered the impairment in the tasks including burrowing, nesting, and Morris water maze. Our data pointed out that although both erinacine A and S reduce AD pathology via reducing amyloid deposition and promoting neurogenesis, erinacine A can also inhibit amyloid β production and is worth to be further developed for AD therapeutic use. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice; erinacines; amyloid plaque; astrocytes; microglia; neurogenesis Alzheimer’s disease; APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice; erinacines; amyloid plaque; astrocytes; microglia; neurogenesis
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Tzeng, T.-T.; Chen, C.-C.; Chen, C.-C.; Tsay, H.-J.; Lee, L.-Y.; Chen, W.-P.; Shen, C.-C.; Shiao, Y.-J. The Cyanthin Diterpenoid and Sesterterpene Constituents of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Ameliorate Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Pathologies in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 598.

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