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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 563; doi:10.3390/ijms19020563

Regulation of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Expression in Breast Cancer Cell Lines In Vitro and in Immunodeficient and Humanized Tumor Mice

1
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Medical Center Regensburg, Landshuter Straße 65, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
2
Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel, Hebelstrasse, 204031 Basel, Switzerland
These authors share senior-authorship.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is an efficient strategy of tumor cells to escape immunological eradiation. However, only little is known about the factors that affect the cellular expression levels. Here we assessed the PD-L1 expression on different breast cancer cell lines under standard in vitro culture conditions and as a function of Epirubicin or Paclitaxel treatment. Moreover, we evaluated the expression in immunodeficient tumor mice as well as in humanized tumor mice (i.e., in the presence of a human immune system). We found highest PD-L1 levels in JIMT-1 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Epirubicin treatment caused a decrease and Paclitaxel treatment an increased PD-L1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, we identified nuclear PD-L1 in MDA-MB-231 cells. All in vivo transplanted breast cancer cell lines downregulated PD-L1 expression compared to their in vitro counterpart. Neither the gene copy number nor the presence of human immune system in humanized tumor mice had an effect on the PD-L1 content. We demonstrate that the degree of PD-L1 expression amongst breast cancer cell lines varies considerably. In addition, cytotoxic treatments and other extrinsic parameters differentially affect the expression. Hence, further investigations including in vivo evaluations are necessary to understand PD-L1 regulation for advanced breast cancer stratification. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer cell lines; PD-(L)1; humanized tumor mice; Epirubicin; Paclitaxel breast cancer cell lines; PD-(L)1; humanized tumor mice; Epirubicin; Paclitaxel
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rom-Jurek, E.-M.; Kirchhammer, N.; Ugocsai, P.; Ortmann, O.; Wege, A.K.; Brockhoff, G. Regulation of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Expression in Breast Cancer Cell Lines In Vitro and in Immunodeficient and Humanized Tumor Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 563.

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