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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020514

Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels

1
Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C., Carretera a la Victoria Km 0.6, La Victoria, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora, Mexico
2
Tecnologico de Monterrey, Centro de Biotecnologia-FEMSA., Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Monterrey C.P. 64849, Nuevo León, Mexico
3
Tecnologico de Monterrey, Department of Bioengineering and Science, Campus Puebla, Av. Atlixcáyotl 2301, Puebla C.P. 72453, Puebla, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolics and Polyphenols 2018)
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Abstract

Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10−6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10−6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellular antioxidant activity; Caco-2 monolayer; gallic acid; mangiferin; mango by-products; intestinal permeability cellular antioxidant activity; Caco-2 monolayer; gallic acid; mangiferin; mango by-products; intestinal permeability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Pacheco-Ordaz, R.; Antunes-Ricardo, M.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, J.A.; González-Aguilar, G.A. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 514.

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