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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 456; doi:10.3390/ijms19020456

Infectious Agents as Stimuli of Trained Innate Immunity

1
Department of Immunology and Infectious Biology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha St. 12/16, 90-237 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha St. 12/16, 90-237 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Infectious Disease)
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Abstract

The discoveries made over the past few years have modified the current immunological paradigm. It turns out that innate immunity cells can mount some kind of immunological memory, similar to that observed in the acquired immunity and corresponding to the defense mechanisms of lower organisms, which increases their resistance to reinfection. This phenomenon is termed trained innate immunity. It is based on epigenetic changes in innate immune cells (monocytes/macrophages, NK cells) after their stimulation with various infectious or non-infectious agents. Many infectious stimuli, including bacterial or fungal cells and their components (LPS, β-glucan, chitin) as well as viruses or even parasites are considered potent inducers of innate immune memory. Epigenetic cell reprogramming occurring at the heart of the phenomenon may provide a useful basis for designing novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to prevent and protect against multiple diseases. In this article, we present the current state of art on trained innate immunity occurring as a result of infectious agent induction. Additionally, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming and the implications for immune response stimulation/manipulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: innate immunity training; epigenetic reprogramming; innate immune memory; bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG); β-glucan; chitin; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) innate immunity training; epigenetic reprogramming; innate immune memory; bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG); β-glucan; chitin; lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rusek, P.; Wala, M.; Druszczyńska, M.; Fol, M. Infectious Agents as Stimuli of Trained Innate Immunity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 456.

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