Signaling by Steroid Hormones in the 3D Nuclear Space
AbstractInitial studies showed that ligand-activated hormone receptors act by binding to the proximal promoters of individual target genes. Genome-wide studies have now revealed that regulation of transcription by steroid hormones mainly depends on binding of the receptors to distal regulatory elements. Those distal elements, either enhancers or silencers, act on the regulation of target genes by chromatin looping to the gene promoters. In the nucleus, this level of chromatin folding is integrated within dynamic higher orders of genome structures, which are organized in a non-random fashion. Terminally differentiated cells exhibit a tissue-specific three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome that favors or restrains the activity of transcription factors and modulates the function of steroid hormone receptors, which are transiently activated upon hormone exposure. Conversely, integration of the hormones signal may require modifications of the 3D organization to allow appropriate transcriptional outcomes. In this review, we summarize the main levels of organization of the genome, review how they can modulate the response to steroids in a cell specific manner and discuss the role of receptors in shaping and rewiring the structure in response to hormone. Taking into account the dynamics of 3D genome organization will contribute to a better understanding of the pleiotropic effects of steroid hormones in normal and cancer cells. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Le Dily, F.; Beato, M. Signaling by Steroid Hormones in the 3D Nuclear Space. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 306.
Le Dily F, Beato M. Signaling by Steroid Hormones in the 3D Nuclear Space. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(2):306.Chicago/Turabian Style
Le Dily, François; Beato, Miguel. 2018. "Signaling by Steroid Hormones in the 3D Nuclear Space." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 2: 306.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.