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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020230

Melanins in Fossil Animals: Is It Possible to Infer Life History Traits from the Coloration of Extinct Species?

1
Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Doñana Biological Station—CSIC, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
2
The Gibraltar Museum, Gibraltar GX11 1AA, UK
3
Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Scarborough, ON M1C 1A4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanins and Melanogenesis: From Nature to Applications)
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Abstract

Paleo-colour scientists have recently made the transition from describing melanin-based colouration in fossil specimens to inferring life-history traits of the species involved. Two such cases correspond to counter-shaded dinosaurs: dark-coloured due to melanins dorsally, and light-coloured ventrally. We believe that colour reconstruction of fossils based on the shape of preserved microstructures—the majority of paleo-colour studies involve melanin granules—is not without risks. In addition, animals with contrasting dorso-ventral colouration may be under different selection pressures beyond the need for camouflage, including, for instance, visual communication or ultraviolet (UV) protection. Melanin production is costly, and animals may invest less in areas of the integument where pigments are less needed. In addition, melanocytes exposed to UV radiation produce more melanin than unexposed melanocytes. Pigment economization may thus explain the colour pattern of some counter-shaded animals, including extinct species. Even in well-studied extant species, their diversity of hues and patterns is far from being understood; inferring colours and their functions in species only known from one or few specimens from the fossil record should be exerted with special prudence. View Full-Text
Keywords: dinosaur; fossil; paleo-color; skin coloration; countershading; pigments; melanin; melanosome dinosaur; fossil; paleo-color; skin coloration; countershading; pigments; melanin; melanosome
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Negro, J.J.; Finlayson, C.; Galván, I. Melanins in Fossil Animals: Is It Possible to Infer Life History Traits from the Coloration of Extinct Species? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 230.

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