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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010311

Chondrosarcoma: A Rare Misfortune in Aging Human Cartilage? The Role of Stem and Progenitor Cells in Proliferation, Malignant Degeneration and Therapeutic Resistance

1
G.E.R.N. Tissue Replacement, Regeneration & Neogenesis, Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Medical Center—Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, 79108 Freiburg, Germany
2
Department of Hematology and Oncology, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Children’s Hospital, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
3
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 7 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 21 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances in Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma)
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Abstract

Unlike other malignant bone tumors including osteosarcomas and Ewing sarcomas with a peak incidence in adolescents and young adults, conventional and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas mainly affect people in the 4th to 7th decade of life. To date, the cell type of chondrosarcoma origin is not clearly defined. However, it seems that mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells (MSPC) in the bone marrow facing a pro-proliferative as well as predominantly chondrogenic differentiation milieu, as is implicated in early stage osteoarthritis (OA) at that age, are the source of chondrosarcoma genesis. But how can MSPC become malignant? Indeed, only one person in 1,000,000 will develop a chondrosarcoma, whereas the incidence of OA is a thousandfold higher. This means a rare coincidence of factors allowing escape from senescence and apoptosis together with induction of angiogenesis and migration is needed to generate a chondrosarcoma. At early stages, chondrosarcomas are still assumed to be an intermediate type of tumor which rarely metastasizes. Unfortunately, advanced stages show a pronounced resistance both against chemo- and radiation-therapy and frequently metastasize. In this review, we elucidate signaling pathways involved in the genesis and therapeutic resistance of chondrosarcomas with a focus on MSPC compared to signaling in articular cartilage (AC). View Full-Text
Keywords: chondrosarcoma; articular cartilage; mesenchymal stem and progenitor cell; primary cilia; angiogenesis; metastasis; differentiation; fibroblast growth factor 2; isocitrate dehydrogenase; vascular endothelial growth factor chondrosarcoma; articular cartilage; mesenchymal stem and progenitor cell; primary cilia; angiogenesis; metastasis; differentiation; fibroblast growth factor 2; isocitrate dehydrogenase; vascular endothelial growth factor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Boehme, K.A.; Schleicher, S.B.; Traub, F.; Rolauffs, B. Chondrosarcoma: A Rare Misfortune in Aging Human Cartilage? The Role of Stem and Progenitor Cells in Proliferation, Malignant Degeneration and Therapeutic Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 311.

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