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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 292; doi:10.3390/ijms19010292

Involvement of Bax and Bcl-2 in Induction of Apoptosis by Essential Oils of Three Lebanese Salvia Species in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

1
Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, V.le A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Physiology, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia, 89, 95123 Catania, Italy
3
Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, V.le delle Scienze, Parco d’Orleans II, 90128 Palermo, Italy
4
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via D. Montesano, 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Mechanisms of Plant Bioactive Essential Fats and Oils)
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Abstract

Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in men, and research to find more effective and less toxic drugs has become necessary. In the frame of our ongoing program on traditionally used Salvia species from the Mediterranean Area, here we report the biological activities of Salvia aurea, S. judaica and S. viscosa essential oils against human prostate cancer cells (DU-145). The cell viability was measured by 3(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was used to quantify necrosis cell death. Genomic DNA, caspase-3 activity, expression of cleaved caspase-9, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) proteins were analyzed in order to study the apoptotic process. The role of reactive oxygen species in cell death was also investigated. We found that the three essential oils, containing caryophyllene oxide as a main constituent, are capable of reducing the growth of human prostate cancer cells, activating an apoptotic process and increasing reactive oxygen species generation. These results suggest it could be profitable to further investigate the effects of these essential oils for their possible use as anticancer agents in prostate cancer, alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salvia; essential oil; prostate cancer; apoptosis; reactive oxygen species Salvia; essential oil; prostate cancer; apoptosis; reactive oxygen species
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Russo, A.; Cardile, V.; Graziano, A.C.E.; Avola, R.; Bruno, M.; Rigano, D. Involvement of Bax and Bcl-2 in Induction of Apoptosis by Essential Oils of Three Lebanese Salvia Species in Human Prostate Cancer Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 292.

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