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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010281

Neuroimmune-Driven Neuropathic Pain Establishment: A Focus on Gender Differences

1
Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Naples 80138, Italy
2
Department of Anesthesiology, Surgery and Emergency, University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Naples 80138, Italy
3
Azienda Ospedaliera di Rilievo Nazionale, “A. Cardarelli”, Via A. Cardarelli, Naples 80131, Italy
These Authors share the first Authorship.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microglia in Aging and Neurodegenerative Disease)
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Abstract

The role of neuroinflammatory cells in the establishment of neuropathic pain has been investigated in depth in the last few years. In particular, microglia have been shown to be key players in the induction of tactile allodynia, as they release proinflammatory molecules that, in turn, sensitize nociceptive neurons within the spinal cord. However, the role of peripheral immune cells such as macrophages, infiltrating monocytes, mast cells, and T-cells has been highlighted in the last few studies, even though the data are still conflicting and need to be clarified. Intriguingly, the central (microglia) and peripheral (T-cell)-adaptive immune cells that orchestrate maladaptive process-driven neuropathic pain seem to be involved in a gender-dependent manner. In this review, we highlight the role of the microglia and peripheral immune cells in chronic degenerative disease associated with neuro-immune-inflammatory processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: microglia; neuropathic pain; T-cell; allodynia microglia; neuropathic pain; T-cell; allodynia
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Coraggio, V.; Guida, F.; Boccella, S.; Scafuro, M.; Paino, S.; Romano, D.; Maione, S.; Luongo, L. Neuroimmune-Driven Neuropathic Pain Establishment: A Focus on Gender Differences. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 281.

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