TRIM44 Is a Poor Prognostic Factor for Breast Cancer Patients as a Modulator of NF-κB Signaling
AbstractMany of the tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins function as E3 ubiquitin ligases and are assumed to be involved in various events, including oncogenesis. In regard to tripartite motif-containing 44 (TRIM44), which is an atypical TRIM family protein lacking the RING finger domain, its pathophysiological significance in breast cancer remains unknown. We performed an immunohistochemical study of TRIM44 protein in clinical breast cancer tissues from 129 patients. The pathophysiological role of TRIM44 in breast cancer was assessed by modulating TRIM44 expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. TRIM44 strong immunoreactivity was significantly associated with nuclear grade (p = 0.033), distant disease-free survival (p = 0.031) and overall survival (p = 0.027). Multivariate analysis revealed that the TRIM44 status was an independent prognostic factor for distant disease-free survival (p = 0.005) and overall survival (p = 0.002) of patients. siRNA-mediated TRIM44 knockdown significantly decreased the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and inhibited the migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Microarray analysis and qRT–PCR showed that TRIM44 knockdown upregulated CDK19 and downregulated MMP1 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, TRIM44 knockdown impaired nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated transcriptional activity stimulated by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Moreover, TRIM44 knockdown substantially attenuated the TNFα-dependent phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB and IκBα in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. TRIM44 would play a role in the progression of breast cancer by promoting cell proliferation and migration, as well as by enhancing NF-κB signaling. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
PDF-Document (PDF, 192 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Kawabata, H.; Azuma, K.; Ikeda, K.; Sugitani, I.; Kinowaki, K.; Fujii, T.; Osaki, A.; Saeki, T.; Horie-Inoue, K.; Inoue, S. TRIM44 Is a Poor Prognostic Factor for Breast Cancer Patients as a Modulator of NF-κB Signaling. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1931.
Kawabata H, Azuma K, Ikeda K, Sugitani I, Kinowaki K, Fujii T, Osaki A, Saeki T, Horie-Inoue K, Inoue S. TRIM44 Is a Poor Prognostic Factor for Breast Cancer Patients as a Modulator of NF-κB Signaling. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(9):1931.Chicago/Turabian Style
Kawabata, Hidetaka; Azuma, Kotaro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Sugitani, Ikuko; Kinowaki, Keiichi; Fujii, Takeshi; Osaki, Akihiko; Saeki, Toshiaki; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Inoue, Satoshi. 2017. "TRIM44 Is a Poor Prognostic Factor for Breast Cancer Patients as a Modulator of NF-κB Signaling." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 9: 1931.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.