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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1905; doi:10.3390/ijms18091905

Metabolic Profiling in Association with Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction Following Non-Toxic Cadmium Exposure

1
Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Highly Prevalent Diseases, Guangxi Medical University School of Public Health, Nanning 530021, China
2
Department of Epidemiology, Guangxi Medical University School of Public Health, Nanning 530021, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

This study aimed to determine the metabolic profile of non-toxic cadmium (Cd)-induced dysfunctional endothelial cells using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs (n = 6 per group) were treated with 0, 1, 5, or 10 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for 48 h. Cell phenotypes, including nitric oxide (NO) production, the inflammatory response, and oxidative stress, were evaluated in Cd-exposed and control HUVECs. Cd-exposed and control HUVECs were analysed using gas chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry. Compared to control HUVECs, Cd-exposed HUVECs were dysfunctional, exhibiting decreased NO production, a proinflammatory state, and non-significant oxidative stress. Further metabolic profiling revealed 24 significantly-altered metabolites in the dysfunctional endothelial cells. The significantly-altered metabolites were involved in the impaired tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, activated pyruvate metabolism, up-regulated glucogenic amino acid metabolism, and increased pyrimidine metabolism. The current metabolic findings further suggest that the metabolic changes linked to TCA cycle dysfunction, glycosylation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), and compensatory responses to genomic instability and energy deficiency may be generally associated with dysfunctional phenotypes, characterized by decreased NO production, a proinflammatory state, and non-significant oxidative stress, in endothelial cells following non-toxic Cd exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; nitric oxide; vascular endothelial function; metabolomics; metabolic pathway cadmium; nitric oxide; vascular endothelial function; metabolomics; metabolic pathway
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhong, Q.; Li, X.; Nong, Q.; Mao, B.; Pan, X. Metabolic Profiling in Association with Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction Following Non-Toxic Cadmium Exposure. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1905.

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