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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1888; doi:10.3390/ijms18091888

Bromopropane Compounds Increase the Stemness of Colorectal Cancer Cells

1
College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Korea
2
College of Pharmacy, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-ro, Sunchon, Jeonnam 57922, Korea
3
Faculty of Natural Science and Technology, Tay Nguyen University, Buon Ma Thout 630000, Vietnam
4
College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186, Korea
5
College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon 16419, Korea
6
College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea
7
Medical Research Center for Gene Regulation, Brain Korea 21 Project, Chonnam National University Medical School, 160 Baekseo-ro, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61469, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Stem Cells)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6724 KB, uploaded 1 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Bromopropane (BP) compounds, including 1-bromopropane, 2-bromopropane, and 1,2-dibromopropane, are used in industry for various purposes, and their deleterious effects on human health are becoming known. In this study, we examined the effects of BP compounds on the stemness of colorectal cancer cells. At low, non-cytotoxic concentrations, BP compounds significantly increased spheroid formation in CSC221, DLD1, Caco2, and HT29 cells. In addition, the levels of cancer stem cell markers, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase-1, cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133), CD44, Lgr5, Musashi-1, Ephrin receptor, and Bmi-1 increased after exposure to BP compounds. BP compounds increased the transcriptional activity of the TOPflash and glioma-associated oncogene homolog zinc finger protein (Gli) promoters in reporter assays and increased the expression of Gli-1, Gli-2, Smoothened (SMO), and β-catenin by RT-PCR. These results demonstrate for the first time that BP compounds have the potential to promote cancer stemness. View Full-Text
Keywords: bromopropane; colorectal cancer; cancer stem cell bromopropane; colorectal cancer; cancer stem cell
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Cho, Y.-C.; Nguyen, T.T.; Park, S.-Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, H.S.; Jeong, H.G.; Kim, K.K.; Kim, H. Bromopropane Compounds Increase the Stemness of Colorectal Cancer Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1888.

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