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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1823; doi:10.3390/ijms18091823

A Molecular Modeling Study of the Hydroxyflutamide Resistance Mechanism Induced by Androgen Receptor Mutations

1
School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biophysics)
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Abstract

Hydroxyflutamide (HF), an active metabolite of the first generation antiandrogen flutamide, was used in clinic to treat prostate cancer targeting androgen receptor (AR). However, a drug resistance problem appears after about one year’s treatment. AR T877A is the first mutation that was found to cause a resistance problem. Then W741C_T877A and F876L_T877A mutations were also reported to cause resistance to HF, while W741C and F876L single mutations cannot. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with the molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) method have been carried out to analyze the interaction mechanism between HF and wild-type (WT)/mutant ARs. The obtained results indicate that AR helix 12 (H12) plays a pivotal role in the resistance of HF. It can affect the coactivator binding site at the activation function 2 domain (AF2, surrounded by H3, H4, and H12). When H12 closes to the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) like a lid, the coactivator binding site can be formed to promote transcription. However, once H12 is opened to expose LBD, the coactivator binding site will be distorted, leading to invalid transcription. Moreover, per-residue free energy decomposition analyses indicate that N705, T877, and M895 are vital residues in the agonist/antagonist mechanism of HF. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxyflutamide; drug resistance; androgen receptor; molecular dynamics simulation; MM-GBSA hydroxyflutamide; drug resistance; androgen receptor; molecular dynamics simulation; MM-GBSA
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Liu, H.-L.; Zhong, H.-Y.; Song, T.-Q.; Li, J.-Z. A Molecular Modeling Study of the Hydroxyflutamide Resistance Mechanism Induced by Androgen Receptor Mutations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1823.

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