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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1509; doi:10.3390/ijms18071509

Functional Hybrid Materials Based on Manganese Dioxide and Lignin Activated by Ionic Liquids and Their Application in the Production of Lithium Ion Batteries

1
Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, PL-60965 Poznan, Poland
2
Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, PL-60965 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Lignin Challenge: Exploring Innovative Applications)

Abstract

Kraft lignin (KL) was activated using selected ionic liquids (ILs). The activated form of the biopolymer, due to the presence of carbonyl groups, can be used in electrochemical tests. To increase the application potential of the system in electrochemistry, activated lignin forms were combined with manganese dioxide, and the most important physicochemical and morphological-microstructural properties of the novel, functional hybrid systems were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential analysis, thermal stability (TGA/DTG) and porous structure analysis. An investigation was also made of the practical application of the hybrid materials in the production of lithium ion batteries. The capacity of the anode (MnO2/activated lignin), working at a low current regime of 50 mA·g−1, was ca. 610 mAh·g−1, while a current of 1000 mA·g−1 resulted in a capacity of 570 mAh·g−1. Superior cyclic stability and rate capability indicate that this may be a promising electrode material for use in high-performance lithium ion batteries. View Full-Text
Keywords: kraft lignin; ionic liquids; manganese oxide; physicochemical and structural characteristics; electrochemical properties kraft lignin; ionic liquids; manganese oxide; physicochemical and structural characteristics; electrochemical properties
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Klapiszewski, Ł.; Szalaty, T.J.; Kurc, B.; Stanisz, M.; Skrzypczak, A.; Jesionowski, T. Functional Hybrid Materials Based on Manganese Dioxide and Lignin Activated by Ionic Liquids and Their Application in the Production of Lithium Ion Batteries. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1509.

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