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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1390; doi:10.3390/ijms18071390

Macrophages and Phospholipases at the Intersection between Inflammation and the Pathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection

1,†,* , 1,†,* and 2,†,*
1
Confocal Microscopy Unit, Core Facilities, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Center for Global Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

Persistent low grade immune activation and chronic inflammation are nowadays considered main driving forces of the progressive immunologic failure in effective antiretroviral therapy treated HIV-1 infected individuals. Among the factors contributing to this phenomenon, microbial translocation has emerged as a key driver of persistent immune activation. Indeed, the rapid depletion of gastrointestinal CD4+ T lymphocytes occurring during the early phases of infection leads to a deterioration of the gut epithelium followed by the translocation of microbial products into the systemic circulation and the subsequent activation of innate immunity. In this context, monocytes/macrophages are increasingly recognized as an important source of inflammation, linked to HIV-1 disease progression and to non-AIDS complications, such as cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive decline, which are currently main challenges in treated patients. Lipid signaling plays a central role in modulating monocyte/macrophage activation, immune functions and inflammatory responses. Phospholipase-mediated phospholipid hydrolysis leads to the production of lipid mediators or second messengers that affect signal transduction, thus regulating a variety of physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. In this review, we discuss the contribution of phospholipases to monocyte/macrophage activation in the context of HIV-1 infection, focusing on their involvement in virus-associated chronic inflammation and co-morbidities. View Full-Text
Keywords: monocyte/macrophage; phospholipases; HIV-1; inflammation monocyte/macrophage; phospholipases; HIV-1; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Spadaro, F.; Cecchetti, S.; Fantuzzi, L. Macrophages and Phospholipases at the Intersection between Inflammation and the Pathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1390.

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