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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1382; doi:10.3390/ijms18071382

Secretion of IFN-γ Associated with Galectin-9 Production by Pleural Fluid Cells from a Patient with Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis

1
Division of Disaster-Related Infectious Diseases, International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575, Japan
2
KKR Tohoku Kosai Hospital, Kokubun-cho 2-3-11, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi 980-0803, Japan
3
Department of Health Science and Social Welfare, Kibi International University, 8 Igamachi, Takahashi 716-8508, Japan
4
Microbiological Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Kagasuno, Kawauchi-cho, Tokushima 771-0192, Japan
5
Department of Immunology, Kagawa University, 1-1 Saiwaicho, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0016, Japan
6
Medical Chemistry Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Kawauchi-cho, Tokushima 771-0192, Japan
7
Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574, Japan
8
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574, Japan
9
Internal Medicine of Respiratory Diseases, Sendai City hospital, Asutonaga-machi, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-8502, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 25 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Infectious Disease)
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Abstract

In this study, we investigated the role of a matricellular protein galectin-9 (Gal-9) in pleural effusion related to tuberculosis (TB). Plasma and pleural fluid of a patient with extrapulmonary TB were analyzed for cytokine content by ELISA and Luminex. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pleural fluid cells (PFCs) were examined for interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion by the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay or IFN-γ ELISA, for apoptosis and necrosis by Cell Death Detection ELISA, and also underwent cell sorting. The results indicate that compared to plasma, pleural fluid had increased levels of IFN-γ (1.6 vs. 55.5 pg/mL), IL-10, IL-12p40, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Gal-9 (3.0 vs. 936.0 pg/mL), respectively. PFCs culture supernatant exhibited higher concentration of Gal-9 compared to PBMCs in culture, consistent with enriched Gal-9 staining in the granuloma that is in closer vicinity to PFCs compared to PBMCs. PFCS displayed higher IFN-γ secretion after stimulation with TB antigens ESAT-6/CFP-10. Furthermore, in PFCs, Gal-9 alone could stimulate IFN-γ synthesis in culture or ELISPOT, which was inhibited by a Gal-9 antagonist lactose, and which may promote apoptosis and necrosis. These findings suggest that Gal-9 could modulate immune responses and participate in immunopathology of pleural effusion during TB. View Full-Text
Keywords: tuberculosis; matricellular protein; galectin-9; pleural effusion; ELISPOT tuberculosis; matricellular protein; galectin-9; pleural effusion; ELISPOT
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Zhao, J.; Shiratori, B.; Chagan-Yasutan, H.; Matsumoto, M.; Niki, T.; Tanaka, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Usami, O.; Ashino, Y.; Hattori, T. Secretion of IFN-γ Associated with Galectin-9 Production by Pleural Fluid Cells from a Patient with Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1382.

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