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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 822; doi:10.3390/ijms18040822

Liposomal Encapsulation for Systemic Delivery of Propranolol via Transdermal Iontophoresis Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Ovariectomized Rats

Orthopaedic Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan
Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City 82445, Taiwan
Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chiayi University, Chiayi City 60054, Taiwan
Department of Orthopaedics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan
Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 80145, Taiwan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Taubert
Received: 18 February 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterial Sciences)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2410 KB, uploaded 13 April 2017]   |  


The stimulatory effects of liposomal propranolol (PRP) on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblastic cells suggested that the prepared liposomes-encapsulated PRP exerts anabolic effects on bone in vivo. Iontophoresis provides merits such as sustained release of drugs and circumvention of first pass metabolism. This study further investigated and evaluated the anti-osteoporotic effects of liposomal PRP in ovariectomized (OVX) rats via iontophoresis. Rats subjected to OVX were administered with pure or liposomal PRP via iontophoresis or subcutaneous injection twice a week for 12 weeks. Changes in the microarchitecture at the proximal tibia and the fourth lumbar spine were assessed between pure or liposomal PRP treated and non-treated groups using micro-computed tomography. Administration of liposomal PRP at low dose (0.05 mg/kg) via iontophoresis over 2-fold elevated ratio between bone volume and total tissue volume (BV/TV) in proximal tibia to 9.0% whereas treatment with liposomal PRP at low and high (0.5 mg/kg) doses via subcutaneous injection resulted in smaller increases in BV/TV. Significant improvement of BV/TV and bone mineral density (BMD) was also found in the fourth lumbar spine when low-dose liposomal PRP was iontophoretically administered. Iontophoretic low-dose liposomal PRP also elevated trabecular numbers in tibia and trabecular thickness in spine. Enhancement of bone microarchitecture volumes has highlighted that liposomal formulation with transdermal iontophoresis is promising for PRP treatment at the lower dose and with longer duration than its clinical therapeutic range and duration to exhibit optimal effects against bone loss in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: propranolol; liposome; bone loss; iontophoresis propranolol; liposome; bone loss; iontophoresis

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Teong, B.; Kuo, S.M.; Tsai, W.-H.; Ho, M.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Huang, H.H. Liposomal Encapsulation for Systemic Delivery of Propranolol via Transdermal Iontophoresis Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Ovariectomized Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 822.

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