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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 775; doi:10.3390/ijms18040775

Molecular Signature of Indeterminate Thyroid Lesions: Current Methods to Improve Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) Diagnosis

Department of Medical, Surgical and Neurological Sciences, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
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Academic Editor: Daniela Gabriele Grimm
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 April 2017 / Published: 6 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Knowledge in Thyroid Cancer—From Bench to Bedside)
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Abstract

Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) represents the gold standard for determining the nature of thyroid nodules. It is a reliable method with good sensitivity and specificity. However, indeterminate lesions remain a diagnostic challenge and researchers have contributed molecular markers to search for in cytological material to refine FNAC diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries. Nowadays, several “home-made” methods as well as commercial tests are available to investigate the molecular signature of an aspirate. Moreover, other markers (i.e., microRNA, and circulating tumor cells) have been proposed to discriminate benign from malignant thyroid lesions. Here, we review the literature and provide data from our laboratory on mutational analysis of FNAC material and circulating microRNA expression obtained in the last 6 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC); indeterminate lesions; next generation sequencing; gene expression classifier; microRNAs (miRNAs) fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC); indeterminate lesions; next generation sequencing; gene expression classifier; microRNAs (miRNAs)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cantara, S.; Marzocchi, C.; Pilli, T.; Cardinale, S.; Forleo, R.; Castagna, M.G.; Pacini, F. Molecular Signature of Indeterminate Thyroid Lesions: Current Methods to Improve Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) Diagnosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 775.

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