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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 691; doi:10.3390/ijms18040691

(−)-β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 Receptor-Selective Phytocannabinoid, Suppresses Motor Paralysis and Neuroinflammation in a Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis

1
Laboratory of Autoimmunity and Immunopharmacology (LAIF), Department of Health Sciences, Center of Araranguá, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Araranguá 88906-072, Brazil
2
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém 66075-740, Brazil
3
Research and Innovation in Health Sciences (NUPICS), Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora 36036-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christoph Kleinschnitz and Sven Meuth
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 18 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis 2017)
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Abstract

(−)-β-caryophyllene (BCP), a cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2)-selective phytocannabinoid, has already been shown in precedent literature to exhibit both anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Herein, we endeavored to investigate the therapeutic potential of BCP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Furthermore, we sought to demonstrate some of the mechanisms that underlie the modulation BCP exerts on autoimmune activated T cells, the pro-inflammatory scenery of the central nervous system (CNS), and demyelination. Our findings demonstrate that BCP significantly ameliorates both the clinical and pathological parameters of EAE. In addition, data hereby presented indicates that mechanisms underlying BCP immunomodulatory effect seems to be linked to its ability to inhibit microglial cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, it diminished axonal demyelination and modulated Th1/Treg immune balance through the activation of CB2 receptor. Altogether, our study represents significant implications for clinical research and strongly supports the effectiveness of BCP as a novel molecule to target in the development of effective therapeutic agents for MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; neuroinflammation; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; CB2 receptor; (−)-β-caryophyllene; phytocannabinoid multiple sclerosis; neuroinflammation; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; CB2 receptor; (−)-β-caryophyllene; phytocannabinoid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alberti, T.B.; Barbosa, W.L.R.; Vieira, J.L.F.; Raposo, N.R.B.; Dutra, R.C. (−)-β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 Receptor-Selective Phytocannabinoid, Suppresses Motor Paralysis and Neuroinflammation in a Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 691.

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