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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 550; doi:10.3390/ijms18030550

Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid against Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion-Induced Swallowing Dysfunction in Rats

1
Laboratory of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Saitama 350-0295, Japan
2
Laboratory of Immunobiochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Saitama 350-0295, Japan
3
Laboratory of Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Saitama 350-0295, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cesar Borlongan
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 25 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [7065 KB, uploaded 3 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic phytochemical, has been reported to exert antioxidative and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of FA against the dysfunction of the swallowing reflex induced by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO) in rats. In 2VO rats, topical administration of water or citric acid to the pharyngolaryngeal region evoked a diminished number of swallowing events with prolonged latency compared to sham-operated control rats. 2VO rats had an increased level of superoxide anion radical, and decreased dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme levels in the striatum, suggesting that 2VO augmented cerebral oxidative stress and impaired the striatal dopaminergic system. Furthermore, substance P (SP) expression in the laryngopharyngeal mucosa, which is believed to be positively regulated by dopaminergic signaling in the basal ganglia, was decreased in 2VO rats. Oral treatment with FA (30 mg/kg) for 3 weeks (from one week before 2VO to two weeks after) improved the swallowing reflex and maintained levels of striatal dopamine and laryngopharyngeal SP expression in 2VO rats. These results suggest that FA maintains the swallowing reflex by protecting the dopamine-SP system against ischemia-induced oxidative damage in 2VO rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: ferulic acid; cerebral hypoperfusion; swallowing dysfunction; oxidative stress; dopaminergic neuron; substance P ferulic acid; cerebral hypoperfusion; swallowing dysfunction; oxidative stress; dopaminergic neuron; substance P
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MDPI and ACS Style

Asano, T.; Matsuzaki, H.; Iwata, N.; Xuan, M.; Kamiuchi, S.; Hibino, Y.; Sakamoto, T.; Okazaki, M. Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid against Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion-Induced Swallowing Dysfunction in Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 550.

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