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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 490; doi:10.3390/ijms18030490

Progranulin and Its Related MicroRNAs after Status Epilepticus: Possible Mechanisms of Neuroprotection

1
Department of Neurology, University Hospital Magdeburg, 39210 Magdeburg, Germany
2
German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
3
Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, 39118 Magdeburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katalin Prokai-Tatrai
Received: 24 December 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [233 KB, uploaded 24 February 2017]

Abstract

The current knowledge about neuroprotective mechanisms in humans after status epilepticus is scarce. One reason is the difficulty to measure possible mediators of these neuroprotective mechanisms. The dawn of microRNA detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the recent advancements in measuring proteins in the CSF such as progranulin, which is, e.g., responsible for neurite outgrowth and limiting exceeding neuroinflammatory responses, have given us new insights into putative neuroprotective mechanisms following status epilepticus. This should complement the animal data. In this review, we cover what is known about the role of progranulin as well as the links between microRNA changes and the progranulin pathway following status epilepticus in humans and animals hypothesizing neuroprotective and neurorehabilitative effects. Progranulin has also been found to feature prominently in the neuroprotective processes under hypoxic conditions and initiating neurorehabilitative processes. These properties may be used therapeutically, e.g., through drugs that raise the progranulin levels and therefore the cerebral progranulin levels as well with the goal of improving the outcome after status epilepticus. View Full-Text
Keywords: progranulin; status epilepticus; neuroprotection; epilepsy; neurorehabilitation progranulin; status epilepticus; neuroprotection; epilepsy; neurorehabilitation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Körtvelyessy, P.; Huchtemann, T.; Heinze, H.-J.; Bittner, D.M. Progranulin and Its Related MicroRNAs after Status Epilepticus: Possible Mechanisms of Neuroprotection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 490.

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