Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Enhances Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression through PERK/ATF4 Signaling Pathway
AbstractLow-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (Li-ESWT) is used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, but its mechanisms are not well understood. Previously, we found that Li-ESWT increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Here we assessed the underlying signaling pathways in Schwann cells in vitro and in penis tissue in vivo after nerve injury. The result indicated that BDNF were significantly increased by the Li-ESWT after nerve injury, as well as the expression of BDNF in Schwann cells (SCs, RT4-D6P2T) in vitro. Li-ESWT activated the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase (PERK) pathway by increasing the phosphorylation levels of PERK and eukaryotic initiation factor 2a (eIF2α), and enhanced activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) in an energy-dependent manner. In addition, GSK2656157—an inhibitor of PERK—effectively inhibited the effect of Li-ESWT on the phosphorylation of PERK, eIF2α, and the expression of ATF4. Furthermore, silencing ATF4 dramatically attenuated the effect of Li-ESWT on the expression of BDNF, but had no effect on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in Schwann cells. In conclusion, our findings shed new light on the underlying mechanisms by which Li-ESWT may stimulate the expression of BDNF through activation of PERK/ATF4 signaling pathway. This information may help to refine the use of Li-ESWT to further improve its clinical efficacy. View Full-Text
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Wang, B.; Ning, H.; Reed-Maldonado, A.B.; Zhou, J.; Ruan, Y.; Zhou, T.; Wang, H.S.; Oh, B.S.; Banie, L.; Lin, G.; Lue, T.F. Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Enhances Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression through PERK/ATF4 Signaling Pathway. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 433.
Wang B, Ning H, Reed-Maldonado AB, Zhou J, Ruan Y, Zhou T, Wang HS, Oh BS, Banie L, Lin G, Lue TF. Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Enhances Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression through PERK/ATF4 Signaling Pathway. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(2):433.Chicago/Turabian Style
Wang, Bohan; Ning, Hongxiu; Reed-Maldonado, Amanda B.; Zhou, Jun; Ruan, Yajun; Zhou, Tie; Wang, Hsun S.; Oh, Byung S.; Banie, Lia; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F. 2017. "Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Enhances Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression through PERK/ATF4 Signaling Pathway." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 2: 433.
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