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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 352; doi:10.3390/ijms18020352

Induction of Syndecan-4 by Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Molecules with a 1,10-Phenanthroline Structure in Cultured Vascular Endothelial Cells

1
Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510, Japan
2
Department of Environmental Health, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji 192-0392, Japan
3
Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi 274-8510, Japan
4
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, Shinjuku 162-8601, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yasumitsu Ogra and Takafumi Hirata
Received: 12 December 2016 / Revised: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract

Organic–inorganic hybrid molecules constitute analytical tools used in biological systems. Vascular endothelial cells synthesize and secrete proteoglycans, which are macromolecules consisting of a core protein and glycosaminoglycan side chains. Although the expression of endothelial proteoglycans is regulated by several cytokines/growth factors, there may be alternative pathways for proteoglycan synthesis aside from downstream pathways activated by these cytokines/growth factors. Here, we investigated organic–inorganic hybrid molecules to determine a variant capable of analyzing the expression of syndecan-4, a transmembrane heparan-sulfate proteoglycan, and identified 1,10-phenanthroline (o-Phen) with or without zinc (Zn-Phen) or rhodium (Rh-Phen). Bovine aortic endothelial cells in culture were treated with these compounds, and the expression of syndecan-4 mRNA and core proteins was determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. Our findings indicated that o-Phen and Zn-Phen specifically and strongly induced syndecan-4 expression in cultured vascular endothelial cells through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α/β pathway via inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase-domain-containing protein 2. These results demonstrated an alternative pathway involved in mediating induction of endothelial syndecan-4 expression and revealed organic–inorganic hybrid molecules as effective tools for analyzing biological systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: endothelial cells; proteoglycan; 1,10-phenanthroline; syndecan-4; bioorganometallics endothelial cells; proteoglycan; 1,10-phenanthroline; syndecan-4; bioorganometallics
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Hara, T.; Kojima, T.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nakamura, T.; Yoshida, E.; Fujiwara, Y.; Yamamoto, C.; Saito, S.; Kaji, T. Induction of Syndecan-4 by Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Molecules with a 1,10-Phenanthroline Structure in Cultured Vascular Endothelial Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 352.

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