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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 352; doi:10.3390/ijms18020352

Induction of Syndecan-4 by Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Molecules with a 1,10-Phenanthroline Structure in Cultured Vascular Endothelial Cells

Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510, Japan
Department of Environmental Health, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji 192-0392, Japan
Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi 274-8510, Japan
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, Shinjuku 162-8601, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yasumitsu Ogra and Takafumi Hirata
Received: 12 December 2016 / Revised: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Organic–inorganic hybrid molecules constitute analytical tools used in biological systems. Vascular endothelial cells synthesize and secrete proteoglycans, which are macromolecules consisting of a core protein and glycosaminoglycan side chains. Although the expression of endothelial proteoglycans is regulated by several cytokines/growth factors, there may be alternative pathways for proteoglycan synthesis aside from downstream pathways activated by these cytokines/growth factors. Here, we investigated organic–inorganic hybrid molecules to determine a variant capable of analyzing the expression of syndecan-4, a transmembrane heparan-sulfate proteoglycan, and identified 1,10-phenanthroline (o-Phen) with or without zinc (Zn-Phen) or rhodium (Rh-Phen). Bovine aortic endothelial cells in culture were treated with these compounds, and the expression of syndecan-4 mRNA and core proteins was determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. Our findings indicated that o-Phen and Zn-Phen specifically and strongly induced syndecan-4 expression in cultured vascular endothelial cells through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α/β pathway via inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase-domain-containing protein 2. These results demonstrated an alternative pathway involved in mediating induction of endothelial syndecan-4 expression and revealed organic–inorganic hybrid molecules as effective tools for analyzing biological systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: endothelial cells; proteoglycan; 1,10-phenanthroline; syndecan-4; bioorganometallics endothelial cells; proteoglycan; 1,10-phenanthroline; syndecan-4; bioorganometallics

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hara, T.; Kojima, T.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nakamura, T.; Yoshida, E.; Fujiwara, Y.; Yamamoto, C.; Saito, S.; Kaji, T. Induction of Syndecan-4 by Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Molecules with a 1,10-Phenanthroline Structure in Cultured Vascular Endothelial Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 352.

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