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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2702; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122702

The Toxicity of Nanoparticles Depends on Multiple Molecular and Physicochemical Mechanisms

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, 143 Schrenk Hall, 1870 Miner Circle, Rolla, MO 65409, USA
2
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [820 KB, uploaded 13 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

Nanotechnology is an emerging discipline that studies matters at the nanoscale level. Eventually, the goal is to manipulate matters at the atomic level to serve mankind. One growing area in nanotechnology is biomedical applications, which involve disease management and the discovery of basic biological principles. In this review, we discuss characteristics of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on transition metal oxide nanoparticles that influence cytotoxicity. Identification of those properties may lead to the design of more efficient and safer nanosized products for various industrial purposes and provide guidance for assessment of human and environmental health risk. We then investigate biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity that include oxidative stress-induced cellular events and alteration of the pathways pertaining to intracellular calcium homeostasis. All the stresses lead to cell injuries and death. Furthermore, as exposure to nanoparticles results in deregulation of the cell cycle (i.e., interfering with cell proliferation), the change in cell number is a function of cell killing and the suppression of cell proliferation. Collectively, the review article provides insights into the complexity of nanotoxicology. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticle; toxicity; physicochemical property; cell proliferation; calcium homeostasis; oxidative stress nanoparticle; toxicity; physicochemical property; cell proliferation; calcium homeostasis; oxidative stress
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Huang, Y.-W.; Cambre, M.; Lee, H.-J. The Toxicity of Nanoparticles Depends on Multiple Molecular and Physicochemical Mechanisms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2702.

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