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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122534

TGF-β1 in Vascular Wall Pathology: Unraveling Chronic Venous Insufficiency Pathophysiology

1
Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Colney Ln, Norwich NR47UY, UK
2
Faculty of Health Sciences, CICS-UBI—Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Av. Infante D. Henrique, 6201-506 Covilhã, Portugal
3
Department of General Surgery (C), Coimbra University Hospital Centre, Portugal; Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Praceta Prof. Mota Pinto, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 26 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Chronic Venous Disease)
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Abstract

Chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins occur commonly in affluent countries and are a socioeconomic burden. However, there remains a relative lack of knowledge about venous pathophysiology. Various theories have been suggested, yet the molecular sequence of events is poorly understood. Transforming growth factor-beta one (TGF-β1) is a highly complex polypeptide with multifunctional properties that has an active role during embryonic development, in adult organ physiology and in the pathophysiology of major diseases, including cancer and various autoimmune, fibrotic and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, an emphasis on understanding its signaling pathways (and possible disruptions) will be an essential requirement for a better comprehension and management of specific diseases. This review aims at shedding more light on venous pathophysiology by describing the TGF-β1 structure, function, activation and signaling, and providing an overview of how this growth factor and disturbances in its signaling pathway may contribute to specific pathological processes concerning the vessel wall which, in turn, may have a role in chronic venous insufficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic venous insufficiency; growth factors; signal transduction; TGF-β1; inflammation chronic venous insufficiency; growth factors; signal transduction; TGF-β1; inflammation
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Serralheiro, P.; Soares, A.; Costa Almeida, C.M.; Verde, I. TGF-β1 in Vascular Wall Pathology: Unraveling Chronic Venous Insufficiency Pathophysiology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2534.

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