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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1589; doi:10.3390/ijms17091589

Multiplex Gene Expression Profiling of 16 Target Genes in Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Canine Mammary Tissues Using Branched-DNA Assay

1
Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover D-30559, Germany
2
Hematology Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Clinic III, University of Rostock, Rostock D-18057, Germany
3
Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover D-30559, Germany
4
Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Göttingen D-37077, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dario Marchetti
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 7 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [588 KB, uploaded 21 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Mammary gland tumors are one of the most common neoplasms in female dogs, and certain breeds are prone to develop the disease. The use of biomarkers in canines is still restricted to research purposes. Therefore, the necessity to analyze gene profiles in different mammary entities in large sample sets is evident in order to evaluate the strength of potential markers serving as future prognostic factors. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gene expression of 16 target genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, FOXO3, GATA4, HER2, HMGA1, HMGA2, HMGB1, MAPK1, MAPK3, MCL1, MYC, PFDN5, PIK3CA, PTEN, and TP53) known to be involved in human and canine mammary neoplasm development. Expression was analyzed in 111 fresh frozen (FF) and in 170 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens of neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine mammary tissues using a multiplexed branched-DNA (b-DNA) assay. TP53, FOXO3, PTEN, and PFDN5 expression revealed consistent results with significant low expression in malignant tumors. The possibility of utilizing them as predictive factors as well as for assisting in the choice of an adequate gene therapy may help in the development of new and improved approaches in canine mammary tumors. View Full-Text
Keywords: canine mammary tumor; gene expression; RNA; multiplexed branched-DNA (b-DNA) assay; formalin-fixed; paraffin-embedded samples; fresh frozen tissue canine mammary tumor; gene expression; RNA; multiplexed branched-DNA (b-DNA) assay; formalin-fixed; paraffin-embedded samples; fresh frozen tissue
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lüder Ripoli, F.; Conradine Hammer, S.; Mohr, A.; Willenbrock, S.; Hewicker-Trautwein, M.; Brenig, B.; Murua Escobar, H.; Nolte, I. Multiplex Gene Expression Profiling of 16 Target Genes in Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Canine Mammary Tissues Using Branched-DNA Assay. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1589.

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