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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1324; doi:10.3390/ijms17081324

Genes Expressed Differentially in Hessian Fly Larvae Feeding in Resistant and Susceptible Plants

1
Hard Winter Wheat Genetics Research Unit, USDA-ARS, 4008 Throckmorton, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
2
Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
3
Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
4
Department of Statistics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
5
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Area, Rabat 10106, Morocco
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Massimo Maffei and Francesca Barbero
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 27 July 2016 / Accepted: 5 August 2016 / Published: 12 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Insect Interactions)
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Abstract

The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and mainly controlled by deploying resistant cultivars. In this study, we investigated the genes that were expressed differentially between larvae in resistant plants and those in susceptible plants through RNA sequencing on the Illumina platform. Informative genes were 11,832, 14,861, 15,708, and 15,071 for the comparisons between larvae in resistant versus susceptible plants for 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively, after larvae had reached the feeding site. The transcript abundance corresponding to 5401, 6902, 8457, and 5202 of the informative genes exhibited significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in the respective paired comparisons. Overall, genes involved in nutrient metabolism, RNA and protein synthesis exhibited lower transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants, indicating that resistant plants inhibited nutrient metabolism and protein production in larvae. Interestingly, the numbers of cytochrome P450 genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants were comparable to, or higher than those with lower transcript abundance, indicating that toxic chemicals from resistant plants may have played important roles in Hessian fly larval death. Our study also identified several families of genes encoding secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that were expressed at early stage of 1st instar larvae and with more genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants. Those SSGPs are candidate effectors with important roles in plant manipulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant resistance; effectors; compatible interaction; incompatible interaction; salivary glands; cytochrome P450; RNA-sequencing; gall midge plant resistance; effectors; compatible interaction; incompatible interaction; salivary glands; cytochrome P450; RNA-sequencing; gall midge
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Chen, M.-S.; Liu, S.; Wang, H.; Cheng, X.; El Bouhssini, M.; Whitworth, R.J. Genes Expressed Differentially in Hessian Fly Larvae Feeding in Resistant and Susceptible Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1324.

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