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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 797; doi:10.3390/ijms17070797

Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension

1
Millenium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8330025 Santiago, Chile
2
Millenium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Endocrinología, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8330074 Santiago, Chile
These authors contributed equally in this manuscript.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anastasia Susie Mihailidou
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 2 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 23 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Hypertension)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [906 KB, uploaded 23 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Arterial hypertension is a common condition worldwide and an important predictor of several complicated diseases. Arterial hypertension can be triggered by many factors, including physiological, genetic, and lifestyle causes. Specifically, molecules of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system not only play important roles in the control of blood pressure, but they are also associated with the genesis of arterial hypertension, thus constituting a need for pharmacological interventions. Chronic high pressure generates mechanical damage along the vascular system, heart, and kidneys, which are the principal organs affected in this condition. In addition to mechanical stress, hypertension-induced oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and the activation of reparative mechanisms lead to end-organ damage, mainly due to fibrosis. Clinical trials have demonstrated that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system intervention in hypertensive patients lowers morbidity/mortality and inflammatory marker levels as compared to placebo patients, evidencing that this system controls more than blood pressure. This review emphasizes the detrimental effects that a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) imbalance has on health considerations above and beyond high blood pressure, such as fibrotic end-organ damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS); angiotensin II; aldosterone; end-organ damage; fibrosis; hypertension; primary aldosteronism renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS); angiotensin II; aldosterone; end-organ damage; fibrosis; hypertension; primary aldosteronism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Muñoz-Durango, N.; Fuentes, C.A.; Castillo, A.E.; González-Gómez, L.M.; Vecchiola, A.; Fardella, C.E.; Kalergis, A.M. Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 797.

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