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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1061; doi:10.3390/ijms17071061

Aberrant Lipid Metabolism Promotes Prostate Cancer: Role in Cell Survival under Hypoxia and Extracellular Vesicles Biogenesis

1
Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
2
Division of Medical Oncology, Genitourinary Cancer Program, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Li Yang
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 2 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment and Metabolism)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2041 KB, uploaded 2 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading malignancy among men in United States. Recent studies have focused on the identification of novel metabolic characteristics of PCa, aimed at devising better preventive and therapeutic approaches. PCa cells have revealed unique metabolic features such as higher expression of several enzymes associated with de novo lipogenesis, fatty acid up-take and β-oxidation. This aberrant lipid metabolism has been reported to be important for PCa growth, hormone-refractory progression and treatment resistance. Furthermore, PCa cells effectively use lipid metabolism under adverse environmental conditions for their survival advantage. Specifically, hypoxic cancer cells accumulate higher amount of lipids through a combination of metabolic alterations including high glutamine and fatty acid uptake, as well as decreased fatty acid oxidation. These stored lipids serve to protect cancer cells from oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and play important roles in fueling cancer cell proliferation following re-oxygenation. Lastly, cellular lipids have also been implicated in extracellular vesicle biogenesis, which play a vital role in intercellular communication. Overall, the new understanding of lipid metabolism in recent years has offered several novel targets to better target and manage clinical PCa. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; lipogenesis; fatty acid oxidation; carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1); hypoxia; re-oxygenation; extracellular vesicles prostate cancer; lipogenesis; fatty acid oxidation; carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1); hypoxia; re-oxygenation; extracellular vesicles
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Deep, G.; Schlaepfer, I.R. Aberrant Lipid Metabolism Promotes Prostate Cancer: Role in Cell Survival under Hypoxia and Extracellular Vesicles Biogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1061.

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