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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 798; doi:10.3390/ijms17060798

Adverse Biological Effect of TiO2 and Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles Used in Bone Repair and Replacement

1
Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
2
National Research Center for Rehabilitation Technical Aids, Beijing 100176, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Routledge
Received: 8 April 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Toxicity of Nanoparticles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [238 KB, uploaded 24 May 2016]

Abstract

The adverse biological effect of nanoparticles is an unavoidable scientific problem because of their small size and high surface activity. In this review, we focus on nano-hydroxyapatite and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) to clarify the potential systemic toxicological effect and cytotoxic response of wear nanoparticles because they are attractive materials for bone implants and are widely investigated to promote the repair and reconstruction of bone. The wear nanoparticles would be prone to binding with proteins to form protein-particle complexes, to interacting with visible components in the blood including erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets, and to being phagocytosed by macrophages or fibroblasts to deposit in the local tissue, leading to the formation of fibrous local pseudocapsules. These particles would also be translocated to and disseminated into the main organs such as the lung, liver and spleen via blood circulation. The inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and signaling pathway are elaborated to analyze the potential toxicological mechanism. Inhibition of the oxidative stress response and signaling transduction may be a new therapeutic strategy for wear debris–mediated osteolysis. Developing biomimetic materials with better biocompatibility is our goal for orthopedic implants. View Full-Text
Keywords: wear debris particles; hydroxyapatite; TiO2 nanoparticles; nanotoxicology; cytoxicity; blood protein; inflammatory response; oxidative stress wear debris particles; hydroxyapatite; TiO2 nanoparticles; nanotoxicology; cytoxicity; blood protein; inflammatory response; oxidative stress
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, J.; Wang, L.; Fan, Y. Adverse Biological Effect of TiO2 and Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles Used in Bone Repair and Replacement. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 798.

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