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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 733; doi:10.3390/ijms17050733

Pathogenetic and Therapeutic Applications of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) in Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Physiology, Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China
2
Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katalin Prokai-Tatrai
Received: 6 April 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [569 KB, uploaded 14 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by mood, vegetative, cognitive, and even psychotic symptoms and signs that can cause substantial impairments in quality of life and functioning. Up to now, the exact pathogenesis of MDD remains poorly understood. Recent research has begun to reveal that the pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), play an integral role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and the mechanism of antidepressant treatment. On the base of several observations: it is found that subsets of MDD patients have enhanced plasma levels TNF-α; antidepressant treatments had linked with the decline of TNF-α; central administration of TNF-α gives rise to sickness behavior which shares features with depression; and a blockade of it can ameliorate depressive symptomatology in animal models and clinical trials. In this review article, we focus on recent evidence linking TNF-α and MDD looking at data from animal and clinical studies, illustrating the pathophysiological role, susceptibility and its therapeutic application in depression. We conclude by discussing future directions for research, in particular the opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics that target TNF-α. This will be very important for designing preventative strategies and for the identification of new drug targets and preventative strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: major depressive disorder; tumor necrosis factor-α; pathophysiology; genetic polymorphism; therapeutic major depressive disorder; tumor necrosis factor-α; pathophysiology; genetic polymorphism; therapeutic
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, K.; Zhang, H.; Baloch, Z. Pathogenetic and Therapeutic Applications of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) in Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 733.

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