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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 393; doi:10.3390/ijms17050393

Chronic Heat Stress Induces Immune Response, Oxidative Stress Response, and Apoptosis of Finishing Pig Liver: A Proteomic Approach

1
Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193, China
2
College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Sheehan
Received: 13 January 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Proteomic Research)
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Abstract

Heat stress (HS) negatively affects human health, animal welfare, and livestock production. We analyzed the hepatic proteomes of finishing pigs subjected to chronic heat stress (HS), thermal neutral (TN), and restricted feed intake conditions, identifying differences between direct and indirect (via reduced feed intake) HS. Twenty-four castrated male pigs were randomly allocated to three treatments for three weeks: (1) thermal neutral (TN) (22 °C) with ad libitum feeding; (2) chronic HS (30 °C) with ad libitum feeding; and (3) TN, pair-fed to HS intake (PF). Hepatic proteome analysis was conducted using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Both HS and PF significantly reduced liver weight (p < 0.05). Forty-five hepatic proteins were differentially abundant when comparing HS with TN (37), PF with TN (29), and HS with PF (16). These proteins are involved in heat shock response and immune defense, oxidative stress response, cellular apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and cytoskeleton. We also observed increased abundance of proteins and enzymes associated with heat shock response and immune defense, reduced the redox state, enhanced multiple antioxidant abilities, and increased apoptosis in HS liver. Heat-load, independent of reduced feed intake, induced an innate immune response, while food restriction caused stress and cellular apoptosis. Our results provide novel insights into the effects of chronic HS on liver. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver; immune defense; oxidative stress; animal welfare; proteome; pig (Susscrofa) liver; immune defense; oxidative stress; animal welfare; proteome; pig (Susscrofa)
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Cui, Y.; Hao, Y.; Li, J.; Bao, W.; Li, G.; Gao, Y.; Gu, X. Chronic Heat Stress Induces Immune Response, Oxidative Stress Response, and Apoptosis of Finishing Pig Liver: A Proteomic Approach. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 393.

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