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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 545; doi:10.3390/ijms17040545

Comparison of Topical Hemostatic Agents in a Swine Model of Extremity Arterial Hemorrhage: BloodSTOP iX Battle Matrix vs. QuikClot Combat Gauze

1
Knuppe Molecular Urology Laboratory, Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
2
VDx Veterinary Diagnostics, Davis, CA 95616, USA
3
Department of Aeromedical Research, U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH 45433, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shaker A. Mousa
Received: 21 February 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Biology and Therapeutics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2888 KB, uploaded 12 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

BloodSTOP iX Battle Matrix (BM) and QuikClot Combat Gauze (CG) have both been used to treat traumatic bleeding. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and initial safety of both products in a swine extremity arterial hemorrhage model, which mimics combat injury. Swine (37.13 ± 0.56 kg, NBM = 11, NCG = 9) were anesthetized and splenectomized. We then isolated the femoral arteries and performed a 6 mm arteriotomy. After 45 s of free bleeding, either BM or CG was applied. Fluid resuscitation was provided to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 65 mmHg. Animals were observed for three hours or until death. Fluoroscopic angiography and wound stability challenge tests were performed on survivors. Tissue samples were collected for histologic examination. Stable hemostasis was achieved in 11/11 BM and 5/9 CG subjects, with recovery of mean arterial pressure and animal survival for three hours (p < 0.05, Odds Ratio (OR) = 18.82 (0.85–415.3)). Time to stable hemostasis was shorter for the BM-treated group (4.8 ± 2.5 min vs. 58 ± 20.1 min; Median = 2, Interquartile Range (IQR) = 0 min vs. Median = 60, IQR = 120 min; p < 0.05) and experienced longer total stable hemostasis (175.2 ± 2.5 min vs. 92.4 ± 29.9 min; Median = 178, IQR = 0 min vs. Median = 120, IQR = 178 min; p < 0.05). Post-treatment blood loss was lower with BM (9.5 ± 2.4 mL/kg, Median = 10.52, IQR = 13.63 mL/kg) compared to CG (29.9 ± 9.9 mL/kg, Median = 29.38, IQR = 62.44 mL/kg) (p = 0.2875). Standard BM products weighed less compared to CG (6.9 ± 0.03 g vs. 20.2 ± 0.4 g) (p < 0.05) and absorbed less blood (3.4 ± 0.8 g vs. 41.9 ± 12.3 g) (p < 0.05). Fluoroscopic angiography showed recanalization in 5/11 (BM) and 0/5 (CG) surviving animals (p = 0.07, OR = 9.3 (0.41–208.8)). The wound stability challenge test resulted in wound re-bleeding in 1/11 (BM) and 5/5 (CG) surviving animals (p < 0.05, OR = 0.013 (0.00045–0.375)). Histologic evidence indicated no wound site, distal limb or major organ damage in either group. BM is more effective and portable in treating arterial hemorrhage compared to CG. There was no histologic evidence of further damage in either group. View Full-Text
Keywords: hemostatic agents; BloodSTOP Battle Matrix; QuikClot Combat Gauze; hemorrhage control; swine hemostatic agents; BloodSTOP Battle Matrix; QuikClot Combat Gauze; hemorrhage control; swine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, H.; Wang, L.; Alwaal, A.; Lee, Y.-C.; Reed-Maldonado, A.; Spangler, T.A.; Banie, L.; O’Hara, R.B.; Lin, G. Comparison of Topical Hemostatic Agents in a Swine Model of Extremity Arterial Hemorrhage: BloodSTOP iX Battle Matrix vs. QuikClot Combat Gauze. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 545.

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