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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 445; doi:10.3390/ijms17040445

Species Identification of Bovine, Ovine and Porcine Type 1 Collagen; Comparing Peptide Mass Fingerprinting and LC-Based Proteomics Methods

Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, the University of Manchester, Manchester, M1 7DN, UK
Academic Editor: Christo Z. Christov
Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 24 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Proteomic Research)
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Abstract

Collagen is one of the most ubiquitous proteins in the animal kingdom and the dominant protein in extracellular tissues such as bone, skin and other connective tissues in which it acts primarily as a supporting scaffold. It has been widely investigated scientifically, not only as a biomedical material for regenerative medicine, but also for its role as a food source for both humans and livestock. Due to the long-term stability of collagen, as well as its abundance in bone, it has been proposed as a source of biomarkers for species identification not only for heat- and pressure-rendered animal feed but also in ancient archaeological and palaeontological specimens, typically carried out by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) as well as in-depth liquid chromatography (LC)-based tandem mass spectrometric methods. Through the analysis of the three most common domesticates species, cow, sheep, and pig, this research investigates the advantages of each approach over the other, investigating sites of sequence variation with known functional properties of the collagen molecule. Results indicate that the previously identified species biomarkers through PMF analysis are not among the most variable type 1 collagen peptides present in these tissues, the latter of which can be detected by LC-based methods. However, it is clear that the highly repetitive sequence motif of collagen throughout the molecule, combined with the variability of the sites and relative abundance levels of hydroxylation, can result in high scoring false positive peptide matches using these LC-based methods. Additionally, the greater alpha 2(I) chain sequence variation, in comparison to the alpha 1(I) chain, did not appear to be specific to any particular functional properties, implying that intra-chain functional constraints on sequence variation are not as great as inter-chain constraints. However, although some of the most variable peptides were only observed in LC-based methods, until the range of publicly available collagen sequences improves, the simplicity of the PMF approach and suitable range of peptide sequence variation observed makes it the ideal method for initial taxonomic identification prior to further analysis by LC-based methods only when required. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone collagen; collagen function; hydroxylation; variability; peptide mass fingerprinting bone collagen; collagen function; hydroxylation; variability; peptide mass fingerprinting
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Buckley, M. Species Identification of Bovine, Ovine and Porcine Type 1 Collagen; Comparing Peptide Mass Fingerprinting and LC-Based Proteomics Methods. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 445.

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